A Preliminary Study on How the Icon Composition and Background of Graphical Icons Affect Users’ Preference Levels
Currently, it is a common scene that users click on-screen graphical user interfaces (GUI), or visual icons, to operate computers, tablet computers and smartphones as well as to execute program instructions. Employing eye-trackers as experimental tools, this study aimed to explore how different presentation modes of graphical icons affect users’ preference levels. The experiment was designed to investigate two variables: icon composition and background. Through permutation and combination, six presentation modes were obtained as follows: line + positive background (M1), plane + positive background (M2), line + negative background (M3), plane + negative background (M4), line + no background (M5), and plane + no background (M6). With the help of eye-trackers, seven participants were demanded to view thirty stimuli, or the contour drawings of graphical icons, presented simultaneously in the six above-mentioned modes. The participants’ fixation duration and fixation frequency were analyzed through two-way ANOVA. The analytical results showed that in terms of the two performance indicators above, M4 performed the best among the six presentation modes. Moreover, negative background performed better than positive background. The findings herein can serve as a reference when icons are researched or designed in the future.
KeywordsIcon composition Background Icon border Fixation Eye-tracking
The authors hereby extend sincere thanks to Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of the Republic of China (ROC) for their financial support of this research, whose project code is MOST 104-2221-E-165-001. It is thanks to the generous patronage of MOST that this study has been smoothly performed.
- 4.Memon, A., Banerjee, I., Nagarajan, A.: GUI ripping: reverse engineering of graphical user interfaces for testing. In: Proceedings. 10th Working Conference on Reverse Engineering 2003, WCRE 2003, pp. 260. IEEE (2003)Google Scholar
- 11.Lin, H., Lin, W., Tsai, W.-C., Cheng, Yune-Yu., Wu, F.-G.: Effect of the color tablet computer’s polarity and character size on legibility. In: Stephanidis, C., Antona, M. (eds.) UAHCI 2014, Part II. LNCS, vol. 8514, pp. 132–143. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)Google Scholar
- 17.Curry, M.B., McDougall, S.J., de Bruijn, O.: The effects of the visual metaphor in determining icon efficacy. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, pp. 1590–1594. SAGE Publications (1998)Google Scholar
- 18.Dewar, R.: Design and evaluation of public information symbols. Visual information for everyday use: Design and research perspectives, pp. 285–303 (1999)Google Scholar
- 19.Wong, W.: Principles of form and design. John Wiley & Sons, New York (1993)Google Scholar
- 20.Bullimore, M., Howarth, P., Fulton, J.: Assessment of visual performance. Evaluation of human work: a practical ergonomics methodology, pp. 804–839 (1990)Google Scholar
- 21.Mirzoeff, N.: The Visual Culture Reader. Psychology Press, New York (2002)Google Scholar