Advertisement

Immersive Journalism in VR: Four Theoretical Domains for Researching a Narrative Design Framework

  • Gary M. HardeeEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9740)

Abstract

A major focus of research in Virtual Reality (VR) media examines the technological affordances for creating immersion, which in turn can generate presence – the feeling of being there – in a virtual environment. This research has given rise to an emerging form of fact-based storytelling called immersive journalism, a term used to describe digitally produced stories designed to provide a first-person, interactive experience with news events. This paper examines the concept of immersive journalism and discusses both its potential and its limitations as a narrative and journalistic genre. Immersive journalism will require a new narrative design framework, and four theoretical domains are discussed as underscoring this framework. The four are VR presence, narrative, cognition and journalistic ethics.

Keywords

Journalism Virtual reality Embodiment Interactive narrative Situated cognition Ethics 

References

  1. 1.
    de la Peña, N., Weil, P., Llobera, J., Giannopoulos, E., Pomes, A., Spanlang, B., Slater, M.: Immersive journalism: immersive virtual reality for the first-person experience of news. Presence 19, 291–301 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Simon, R.: Museum TV. See it Now: U.S. Documentary Series (n.d): http://www.museum.tv/eotv/seeitnow.htm
  3. 3.
    Siegel, R., Norris, M. NPR, 23 October 2003. Walter Cronkite: history’s lessons: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1480691. Accessed 23 Oct 2003
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
    Biocca, F., Levy, M.R.: Communication applications of virtual reality. In: Biocca, F., Levy, M.R. (eds.) Communication in the Age of Virtual Reality, p. 128. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, Hillsdale (1995)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Biocca, F., Levy, M.R.: The vision of virtual reality. In: Biocca, F., Levy, M.R. (eds.) Communication in the Age of Virtual Reality. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, Hillsdale (1995)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kinnick, K.N., Krugman, D.M., Cameron, G.T.: Compassion fatigue: communication and burnout toward social problems. Journal. Mass Commun. Q. 73(3), 687–707 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Slater, M.: Place illusion and plausibility can lead to realistic behaviour in immersive virtual environments. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. B 364, 3549–3557 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Riva, G., Davide, F., IJsselsteijn, W. (eds.): Being There: Concepts, Effects and Measurements of User Presence in Synthetic Environments (vol. 5 of Emerging Communication: Studies on New Technologies and Practices in Communication). Ios Press, Amsteradam (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    McLuhan, M., Fiore, Q., Agel, J.: The Medium is the Massage. Ginko Press, Corte Madera (1967)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ricoeur, P.: Time and Narrative, vol. 1. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1984)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bruner, J.: Making Stories: Law, Literature, Life, Paperback edn. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    American Press Institute: The elements of Journalism (n.d). http://www.americanpressinstitute.org/journalism-essentials/what-is-journalism/elements-journalism/. Accessed 19 July 2015
  14. 14.
    SPJ Code of Ethics, 6 September 2014. Society of Professional Journalists: http://www.spj.org/ethicscode.asp. Accessed June 2015
  15. 15.
    Slater, M.: Measuring presence: a response to the Witmer and Singer presence questionnaire. Presence: Teleoper. Virtual Environ. 8(5), 560–565 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Slater, M., Steed, A., Usoh, M.: Being There Together: Experiments on Presence in Virtual Environments. Collection of Papers for Lecture Series, University College London, Department of Computer Science (2013). http://publicationslist.org/melslater. Accessed 19 July 2015
  17. 17.
    Jackson, S., Gannon, C.: Harvest of Change (2015). The Des Moines Register: http://www.desmoinesregister.com/pages/interactives/harvest-of-change/
  18. 18.
    Silverstein, J.: The New York Times Magazine. The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/08/magazine/the-displaced-introduction.html?_r=0. Accessed 5 Nov 2015
  19. 19.
    ABC News VR See The Whole Picture. ABC News (n.d): http://abcnews.go.com/US/fullpage?id=33768357
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
    Hale, K.S., Stanney, K.M. (eds.): Handbook of Virtual Environments: Design, Implementation, and Applications, 2nd edn. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton (2016)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Smith, W.: Wired. Wired Culture: http://www.wired.com/2015/11/360-video-isnt-virtual-reality/. Accessed 16 Nov 2015
  23. 23.
    Manly, L.: Arts, 19 November 2015. The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/22/arts/a-virtual-reality-revolution-coming-to-a-headset-near-you.html?_r=1. Accessed Feb 2016
  24. 24.
    de la Peña, N.: Towards Immersive Journalism: The IPSRESS Experience, 15 July 2009. YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_z8pSTMfGSo. Accessed Feb 2016
  25. 25.
    Eastgate, R.M., Wilson, J.R., D’Cruz, M.: Structured development of virtual environments. In: Hale, K.S., Stanney, K.M. (eds.) Handbook of Virtual Environments: Design, Implemntation, and Applications, 2nd edn. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton (2015)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Biocca, F.: Preface. In: Riva, G., David, F., IJsselsteijn, W. (eds.) Being There: Concepts, Effects and Measurements of User Presence in Synthetic Environments, p. 344. IOS Press, Amsterdam (2003). http://www.neurovr.org/emerging/volume5.html. Accessed Feb 2016Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Merleau-Ponty, M.: Phenomenology of Perception. Taylor and Francis e-Library ed., Routledge, New York (2015). Accessed 26 July 2015Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Todes, S.: Body and World. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2001)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Clark, A.: Mindware: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Cognitive Science. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2001)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lave, J.: Cognition in Practice: Mind, Mathematics and Culture in Everyday Life. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mantovani, F., Catelnuovo, G.: Sense of presence in virtual training: enhancing skill acquisition and transfer of knowledge through learning experience in virtual environments. In: Riva, G., David, F., IJsselsteijn, W. (eds.) Being There: Concepts, Effects and Measurements of User Presence in Synthetic Environments. IOS Press, Amsterdam (2003)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kovach, B., Rosenstiel, T.: The Elements of Journalism. Three Rivers Press, New York (2014)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ryan, M.-L., Thon, J.-N. (eds.): Storyworlds Across Media: Toward a Media-Conscious Narratology. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln (2014)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Riccitiello, J.: Vision Summit 2016 Keynote. Los Angeles, California, USA, 10 Feb 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2hYDtxCtzdA. Accessed 11 Feb 2016
  35. 35.
    McDowell, A.: Vision Summit 2016 Keynote. Los Angeles, California, USA, 10 Feb 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2hYDtxCtzdA. Accessed 11 Feb 2016
  36. 36.
    Rosensteil, T.: The Future of Journalism: Tom Rosenstiel at TEDxAtlanta. Atlanta, GA, USA: TEDx Talks (2013). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RuBE_dP900Y. Accessed 28 May 2013
  37. 37.
    Ward, S.J.: Journalism Ethics. In: Wahl-Jorgensen, K., Hanitzsch, T. (eds.) The handbook of Journalism Studies, pp. 295–307. Routledge Taylor & Francis, New York (2009)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Newton, E. (ed.): Crusaders, Scoundrels, Journalists: The Newseum’s Most Intriguing Newspeople. Times Books a division of Random House Inc., New York (1999)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Texas at DallasRichardsonUSA

Personalised recommendations