Low-Cost Mixed Reality Simulator for Industrial Vehicle Environments

  • Daniel KadeEmail author
  • Markus Wallmyr
  • Tobias Holstein
  • Rikard Lindell
  • Hakan Ürey
  • Oğuzhan Özcan
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9740)


High-end industrial vehicle simulators are generally expensive and aim at providing a high level of realism. The access to such simulators is often a limited resource to researchers and developers who find themselves using a PC-based simulator instead. We challenge this approach by introducing a low-cost mixed reality simulator for industrial vehicles that allows to test new vehicle control concepts and design ideas in a rapid prototyping manner. Our simulator prototype consists of a head-mounted projection display, a CAVE-like room covered with a retro-reflective cloth and a rotatable chair with controls to steer an industrial vehicle. The created digital environment represents an obstacle course for an excavator and can be controlled by a joystick, a keyboard and can be explored by natural head movements.

Performed user tests with 21 participants showed that the mixed reality simulator is perceived as more realistic, natural to use and provides a more immersive experience than a PC-based simulator with the same environment and controls.


Industrial vehicle simulator Mixed reality Head-mounted projection display 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Kade
    • 1
    Email author
  • Markus Wallmyr
    • 1
  • Tobias Holstein
    • 1
    • 3
  • Rikard Lindell
    • 1
  • Hakan Ürey
    • 2
  • Oğuzhan Özcan
    • 2
  1. 1.Mälardalen UniversityVästeråsSweden
  2. 2.Koç UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.University of Applied SciencesDarmstadtGermany

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