Test-Bed for Integrated Ground Control Station Experimentation and Rehearsal: Crew Performance and Authority Pathway Concept Development

  • Derek McCollEmail author
  • Simon Banbury
  • Ming Hou
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9740)


Canada’s Joint Unmanned Surveillance and Target Acquisition System program for acquiring an uninhabited aircraft system requires an interim ground control station for developing operator interface technologies and investigate training needs for the future aircraft. Defence Research and Development Canada is developing the Test-bed for Integrated Ground Control Station Experimentation and Rehearsal for this purpose. The test-bed consists of six workstations for the uninhabited aircraft system crew and five researcher and trainer workstations. A human factors engineering trial was performed on the test-bed with two crews performing a simulated mission scenario. The operator performance results from the trial indicated that both crews performed reasonably well at the individual level, with one crew exhibiting poor teamwork behaviors. Specifically, one crew did not follow rules of engagement and standard operating procedures when engaging a target. Subject matter expert observations determined that the crews had insufficient doctrinal knowledge, crew coordination, and situational awareness. Participant feedback indicated that the simulated scenario could be made more detailed, and they made suggestions to improve the test-bed interface. To support following rules of engagement and standard operating procedures and participant recommendations, this paper presents the development of the Authority Pathway Concept, an intelligent human-machine interface for a ground control station that presents the status of each of the steps required for engaging an enemy target.


Uninhabited aircraft system Ground control station Human-machine interface Operator performance 


  1. 1.
    Garrett-Rempel, D.: Will JUSTAS Prevail? Procuring a UAS capability for Canada. Royal Can. Air Force J. 4(1), 19–31 (2015)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hou, M., Banbury, S., Burns, C.: Intelligent Adaptive Systems: An Interaction-Centred Design Perspective. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2015)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Covas-Smith, M., Grant, S.C., Hou, M., Joralmon, D.Q., Banbury, S.: Development of a Testbed for integrated ground control station experimentation and rehearsal (TIGER): training remotely piloted aircraft operations and data exploitation. In: Unmanned Systems, pp. 1–11. Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) (2015)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    O’Leary, M.B., Mortensen, M.: Subgroups with attitude: imbalance and isolation in geographically dispersed teams. In: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Honolulu (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    O’Leary, M.B., Mortensen, M.: Go (Con)figure: subgroups, imbalance, and isolates in geographically dispersed teams. Organ. Sci. 21(1), 115–131 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Singer, M., Grant, S.C., Commarford, P., Kring, J., Zavod, M.: Team Performance in Distributed Virtual Environments, p. 70. Technical Report 1118, US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (2001)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cordova, A., Keller, K.M., Menthe, L., Rhodes, C.: Virtual Collaboration for a Distributed Enterprise, Technical Report, RAND Corporation (2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Driskell, J.E., Radtke, P.H., Salas, E.: Virtual teams: effects of technological mediation on team performance. Group Dyn. Theor. Res. Pract. 7(4), 297–323 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fowlkes, D.J., Oser, R.L., Salas, E.: Event-based approach to training (EBAT). Int. J. Aviat. Psychol. 8(3), 209–221 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fowlkes, D.J., Burke, C.S.: Event-based approach to training (EBAT). In: Stanton, N., Hedge, A., Brookhuis, K., Salas, E., Hendrik, H. (eds.) Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomic Methods. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baker, K., Banbury, S.: Force Level Tactical Command & Control in a Littoral Environment. Report I: Literature Review and Mission Analysis. DRDC Contract Report CR2008-999 (2008)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hou, M., Zhu, H., Zhou, M.C., Arrabito, R.: Optimizing operator-agent interaction in intelligent adaptive interface design: a conceptual framework. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part C Appl. Rev. 41(2), 161–178 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Human-Systems Integration SectionDefence Research and Development CanadaTorontoCanada
  2. 2.C3 Human Factors Consulting Inc.MontréalCanada

Personalised recommendations