Advertisement

Avatar Types Matter: Review of Avatar Literature for Performance Purposes

  • Irwin HudsonEmail author
  • Jonathan Hurter
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9740)

Abstract

The use of avatars as learning agents is becoming increasingly popular in the sports, education and military domains due to the rapid advancement in distributive technologies (e.g., internet, virtual worlds, etc.). When it comes to military and sports, Simulation-Based Training has proven to be cost-effective, due largely to restrictions on time, costs and safety [1]. As virtual reality and virtual worlds have become cheaper and more powerful in computer terms, the subject of how an avatar relates to an avateer (the avatar’s controller) is becoming increasingly popular. More precisely, interest rests on how an avatar’s appearance may promote or disrupt training objectives, by affecting the behavior or the psychology of a user, and thus subsequently raising or degrading learning. Virtual simulations for training have often shared the aspect of avatars found in Virtual Reality, video games, and Virtual Worlds. This paper examines how avatar representation can provide insight into manipulating avatar appearance for training demands. Existing literature suggests avatars act as drivers for affective changes in attitude and motivation, and can be integrated into an instructional strategy.

Keywords

Agent Avatar Doppelganger Virtual environments Virtual reality Instructional systems design Motivation Attitude Simulation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was sponsored by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory – Human Research Engineering Directorate Advanced Training and Simulation Division (ARL HRED ATSD), in collaboration with the Institute for Simulation and Training at the University of Central Florida. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of ARL HRED ATSD or the U.S. Government. The U.S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation hereon.

References

  1. 1.
    Wilson, C.: Avatars, virtual reality technology, and the U.S. military: emerging policy issues. Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs (2008)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alexander, O., Rogers, M., Lambeth, W., Jen-Yuan, C., Wan-Chun, M., Chuan-Chang, W., Debevec, P.: The digital emily project: achieving a photorealistic digital actor. IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 30(4), 20–31 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Craig, A.B., Sherman, W.R.: Understanding Virtual Reality: Interface, Application, and Design. Morgan Kaufmann, London (2003)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Milgram, P., Takemura, H., Utsumi, A., Kishino, F.: Augmented reality: a class of displays on the reality-virtuality continuum, SPIE, vol. 2351, pp. 282–292. International Society for Optical Engineering (1995)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Peck, T.C., Seinfeld, S., Aglioti, S.M., Slater, M.: Putting yourself in the skin of a black avatar reduces implicit racial bias. Conscious. Cogn. 22(3), 779–787 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hershfield, H.E., Goldstein, D.G., Sharpe, W.F., Yeykelis, L., Carstensen, L.L., Bailenson, J.N.: Increasing saving behavior through age-progressed renderings of the future self. J. Mark. Res. 48, 23–37 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kilteni, K., Bergstrom, I., Slater, M.: Drumming in immersive virtual reality: The body shapes the way we play. IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 19(4), 597–605 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fox, J., Bailenson, J.N.: Virtual self-modeling: The effects of vicarious reinforcement and identification on exercise behaviors. Media Psychol. 12(1), 1–25 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fox, J., Bailenson, J.N., Ricciardi, T.: Physiological responses to virtual selves and virtual others. J. Cybertherapy 5(1), 69–72 (2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Slater, M., Sanchez-Vives, M.V.: Transcending the self in immersive virtual reality. Computer 47(7), 24–30 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hays, R.: The Science of Learning: A Systems Theory Perspective. BrownWalker Press, Boca Raton (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Clark, R.E.: Media will never influence learning. Educ. Technol. Res. Dev. 42(2), 21–29 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Connolly, T.M., Boyle, E.A., MacArthur, E., Hainey, T., Boyle, J.M.: A systematic literature review of empirical evidence on computer games and serious games. Comput. Educ. 59(2), 661–686 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gunter, G.A., Kenny, R.F., Vick, E.H.: Taking educational games seriously: using the RETAIN model to design endogenous fantasy into standalone educational games. Educ. Technol. Res. Dev. 56(5/6), 511–537 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Birk, M., Atkins, C., Bowey, J.T., Mandryk, R.L.: Fostering intrinsic motivation through avatar identification in digital games. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2016). San Jose (2016, in press)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Banks, J., Bowman, N.D.: Close intimate playthings? understanding player-avatar relationships as a function of attachment, agency, and intimacy. Sel. Pap. Internet Res. 3, 1–4 (2013)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kao, D., Harrell, D.F.: Toward avatar models to enhance performance and engagement in educational games. In: Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence & Games (CIG), pp. 246–253 (2015)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Messinger, P.R., Stroulia, E., Lyons, K., Bone, M., Niu, R.H., Smirnov, K.: Virtual worlds-past, present, and future: new directions in social computing. Decis. Support Syst. 47(3), 204–228 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yim, J., Graham, T.N.: Using games to increase exercise motivation. In: Proceedings of the 2007 Conference, Future Play, pp. 166–173 (2007)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yee, N., Bailenson, J.: The proteus effect: the effect of transformed self-representation on behavior. Hum. Commun. Res. 33(3), 271–290 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Adam, H., Galinsky, A.D.: Enclothed cognition. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 48(4), 918–925 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Baylor, A.L.: Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: role of visual presence and appearance. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B Biol. Sci. 364(1535), 3559–3565 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Keller, J.M.: Motivational Design for Learning and Performance: The ARCS Model Approach, 2010th edn. Springer, New York (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hudson, I., Badillo-Urquiola, K.: Virtual approach to psychomotor skills training: manipulating the appearance of avatars to influence learning. In: Shumaker, R., Lackey, S. (eds.) VAMR 2015. LNCS, vol. 9179, pp. 292–299. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.U.S. Army Research LaboratoryOrlandoUSA
  2. 2.Institute for Simulation and TrainingUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA

Personalised recommendations