Assessment of Kim’s Game Strategy for Behavior Cue Detection: Engagement, Flow, & Performance Aspects

  • Crystal S. MarajEmail author
  • Stephanie J. Lackey
  • Karla A. Badillo-Urquiola
  • Irwin L. Hudson
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9740)


Psychological constructs, such as engagement and flow, can be used to determine an individual’s involvement in a task and predict levels of performance during Simulation-Based Training (SBT) in military operations. This experiment used a virtual form of Kim’s game (an observational training game that includes memorization of objects and later recall), to improve pattern recognition and behavior cue detection, during SBT. The purpose of this experiment was to assess participant engagement and flow between two conditions, Kim’s game vs. the control. Seventy-five participants were randomly assigned to either condition, and completed a pre-test, training vignette, post-test, and multiple questionnaires which assessed the individuals’ levels of engagement and flow. Experimental results show the control group reported higher levels of both engagement and flow in all subscales, and flow as a higher predictor of performance than engagement. This paper examines plausible explanations why the engagement questionnaire did not assess differences in performance. The lack of statistically significant findings may be a result of the engagement survey questions and the type of task (i.e., discrete or continuous). Finally, this paper provides future recommendations for examining the role of engagement and flow for simulation-based behavior cue detection training.


Education Training Military Behavior cue detection Pattern recognition Engagement Flow 



This research was sponsored by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory – Human Research Engineering Directorate Advanced Training & Simulation Division (ARL HRED ATSD), in collaboration with the Institute for Simulation and Training at the University of Central Florida. This work is supported in part by ARL HRED STTC contract W911NF-14-2-0021. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of ARL HRED STTC or the U.S. Government. The U.S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Government.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Crystal S. Maraj
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stephanie J. Lackey
    • 2
  • Karla A. Badillo-Urquiola
    • 1
  • Irwin L. Hudson
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute for Simulation and TrainingUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA
  2. 2.Design InteractiveOrlandoUSA
  3. 3.US Army Research LaboratoryOrlandoUSA

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