Voices of the Internet of Things: An Exploration of Multiple Voice Effects in Smart Homes

  • Yohan Moon
  • Ki Joon Kim
  • Dong-Hee ShinEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9749)


Based on the Computers Are Social Actors (CASA) paradigm, this study investigates an effect of media specialization by number of voice in smart-home environment where many smart devices are controlled by voice user interface (VUI). Result from a between-subjects experiment (N = 50) examines that there are interaction effects between users personality and number of voice on social attraction and trust toward media technology which are critical in human-computer interactions. In this experiment, extrovert users feel a stronger feeling of social attraction and trust when there is one identical voice from several smart devices. On the other hand, introvert users feel a stronger feeling of social attraction and trust when different smart devices make respective voices. These results provide a strong evidence for human’s automatic social response to smart devices which have a voice, a strong anthropomorphic cue. Finally, we discuss on implications for future VUI setting, according to user’s personality.


Voice user interface CASA Natural user interface Number of voice User personality 


  1. 1.
    Ashforth, B., Humphrey, R.: The ubiquity and potency of labeling in organizations. Organ. Sci. 8, 43–58 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baumeister, R.: Ego depletion and self-control failure: an energy model of the self’s executive function. Self and Identity. 1, 129–136 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Byrne, D., Griffitt, W., Stefaniak, D.: Attraction and similarity of personality characteristics. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 5, 82–90 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cohen, M., Giangola, J., Balogh, J.: Voice User Interface Design. Addison-Wesley, Boston (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Infante, D., Rancer, A., Womack, D.: Building Communication Theory. Waveland Press, Prospect Heights (1990)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Isbister, K., Nass, C.: Consistency of personality in interactive characters: verbal cues, non-verbal cues, and user characteristics. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 53, 251–267 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jung, S., Lee, K.M., Biocca, F.: Voice control system and multiplatform use: specialist vs. generalist? In: Yamamoto, S., Abbott, A.A. (eds.) HIMI 2015. LNCS, vol. 9172, pp. 607–616. Springer, Heidelberg (2015). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-20612-7_57 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kamm, C.: User interfaces for voice applications. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 92(22), 10031–10037 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shin, D.: User experience in social commerce: in friends we trust. Behav. Inf. Technol. 32(1), 52–67 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Koh, Y., Sundar, S.: Effects of specialization in computers, web sites, and web agents on e-commerce trust. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 68, 899–912 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Koh, Y., Sundar, S.: Heuristic versus systematic processing of specialist versus generalist sources in online media. Hum. Commun. Res. 36, 103–124 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee, K.M., Nass, C.: Designing social presence of social actors in human computer interaction. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI 2003, pp. 289–296 (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shin, D., Choo, H.: Modeling the acceptance of socially interactive robotics: social presence in human-robot interaction. Interact. Stud. 12(3), 430–460 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lee, K., Peng, W., Jin, S., Yan, C.: Can robots manifest personality?: an empirical test of personality recognition, social responses, and social presence in human-robot interaction. J. Commun. 56, 754–772 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Leiser, R.: Improving natural language and speech interfaces by the use of metalinguistic phenomena. Appl. Ergon. 20, 168–173 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lim, Y.: Disappearing interfaces. Interactions 19, 36 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    McCrae, R., Costa, P., McCrae, R.: Personality in Adulthood. Guilford Press, New York (1990)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nass, C., Gong, L.: Speech interfaces from an evolutionary perspective. Commun. ACM 43, 36–43 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nass, C., Lee, K.: Does computer-synthesized speech manifest personality? experimental tests of recognition, similarity-attraction, and consistency-attraction. J. Exp. Psychol. Appl. 7, 171–181 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shin, D.: Defining sociability and social presence in social TV. Comput. Hum. Behav. 29(3), 939–947 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nass, C., Moon, Y., Fogg, B., Reeves, B., Dryer, D.: Can computer personalities be human personalities? Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 43, 223–239 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nass, C., Reeves, B., Leshner, G.: Technology and roles: a tale of two TVs. J. Commun. 46, 121–128 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nass, C., Steuer, J., Tauber, E.: Computers are social actors. In: Paper Presented to CHI 1994 Conference of the ACM/SIGCHI, Boston, MA, USA (1994)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Negroponte, N.: Being Digital. Knopf, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Norman, D.A.: The Design of Everyday Things. Basic Books, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pocheptsova, A., Amir, O., Dhar, R., Baumeister, R.: Deciding without resources: resource depletion and choice in context. J. Mark. Res. 46, 344–355 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Reeves, B., Nass, C.: The media equation. CSLI Publications, Stanford (1996)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sullivan, H.: The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry. Norton, New York (1953)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shin, D.: User value design for cloud courseware system. Behav. Inf. Technol. 34(5), 506–519 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wiggins, J.: A psychological taxonomy of trait-descriptive terms: the interpersonal domain. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 37, 395–412 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Interaction ScienceSungkyunkwan UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Media and CommunicationCity University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  3. 3.School of Media and CommunicationChung-Ang UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations