DeepFood: Deep Learning-Based Food Image Recognition for Computer-Aided Dietary Assessment

  • Chang Liu
  • Yu Cao
  • Yan Luo
  • Guanling Chen
  • Vinod Vokkarane
  • Yunsheng Ma
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9677)

Abstract

Worldwide, in 2014, more than 1.9 billion adults, 18 years and older, were overweight. Of these, over 600 million were obese. Accurately documenting dietary caloric intake is crucial to manage weight loss, but also presents challenges because most of the current methods for dietary assessment must rely on memory to recall foods eaten. The ultimate goal of our research is to develop computer-aided technical solutions to enhance and improve the accuracy of current measurements of dietary intake. Our proposed system in this paper aims to improve the accuracy of dietary assessment by analyzing the food images captured by mobile devices (e.g., smartphone). The key technique innovation in this paper is the deep learning-based food image recognition algorithms. Substantial research has demonstrated that digital imaging accurately estimates dietary intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods. However, how to derive the food information (e.g., food type and portion size) from food image effectively and efficiently remains a challenging and open research problem. We propose a new Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based food image recognition algorithm to address this problem. We applied our proposed approach to two real-world food image data sets (UEC-256 and Food-101) and achieved impressive results. To the best of our knowledge, these results outperformed all other reported work using these two data sets. Our experiments have demonstrated that the proposed approach is a promising solution for addressing the food image recognition problem. Our future work includes further improving the performance of the algorithms and integrating our system into a real-world mobile and cloud computing-based system to enhance the accuracy of current measurements of dietary intake.

Keywords

Deep learning Food image recognition Dietary assessment 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This project is supported in partial by National Science Foundation of the United States (Award No. 1547428, 1541434, 1440737, and 1229213). Points of view or opinions in this document are those of the authors and do not represent the official position or policies of the U.S. NSF.

References

  1. 1.
    Beaton, G.H., Milner, J., Corey, P., McGuire, V., Cousins, M., Stewart, E., et al.: Sources of variance in 24-hour dietary recall data: implications for nutrition study design and interpretation. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (USA) 32, 2546–2559 (1979)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Willett, W.C., Sampson, L., Stampfer, M.J., Rosner, B., Bain, C., Witschi, J., et al.: Reproducibility and validity of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Am. J. Epidemiol. 122, 51–65 (1985)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Buzzard, M.: 24-hour dietary recall and food record methods. Monogr. Epidemiol. Biostatistics 1, 50–73 (1998)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Poslusna, K., Ruprich, J., de Vries, J.H., Jakubikova, M., van’t Veer, P.: Misreporting of energy and micronutrient intake estimated by food records and 24 hour recalls, control and adjustment methods in practice. Br. J. Nutr. 101, S73–S85 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Steele, R.: An overview of the state of the art of automated capture of dietary intake information. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 55, 1929–1938 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yang, S., Chen, M., Pomerleau, D., Sukthankar, R.: Food recognition using statistics of pairwise local features. In: 2010 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), pp. 2249–2256 (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Matsuda, Y., Yanai, K.: Multiple-food recognition considering co-occurrence employing manifold ranking. In: 2012 21st International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), pp. 2017–2020 (2012)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhu, F., Bosch, M., Woo, I., Kim, S., Boushey, C.J., Ebert, D.S., et al.: The use of mobile devices in aiding dietary assessment and evaluation. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Sig. Process. 4, 756–766 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Daugherty, B.L., Schap, T.E., Ettienne-Gittens, R., Zhu, F.M., Bosch, M., Delp, E.J., et al.: Novel technologies for assessing dietary intake: evaluating the usability of a mobile telephone food record among adults and adolescents. J. Med. Internet Res. 14, e58 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Xu, C., He, Y., Khannan, N., Parra, A., Boushey, C., Delp, E.: Image-based food volume estimation. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Multimedia for Cooking & Eating Activities, pp. 75–80 (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    TADA: Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment at Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA. http://www.tadaproject.org/
  12. 12.
    Martin, C.K., Nicklas, T., Gunturk, B., Correa, J.B., Allen, H.R., Champagne, C.: Measuring food intake with digital photography. J. Hum. Nutr. Diet. 27(Suppl 1), 72–81 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    MyFitnessPal.com: Free Calorie Counter, Diet & Exercise Tracker. http://www.myfitnesspal.com/
  14. 14.
    MyNetDiary: the easiest and smartest free calorie counter and free food diary for iPhone, iPad, Android, and BlackBerry applications. http://www.mynetdiary.com/
  15. 15.
    FatSecret: All Things Food and Diet. http://www.fatsecret.com/
  16. 16.
    Bengio, Y.: Learning deep architectures for AI. Found. Trends®. Mach. Learn. 2, 1–127 (2009)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Meal Snap: Magical Meal Logging for iPhone. http://mealsnap.com/
  18. 18.
    Eatly: Eat Smart (Snap a photo of your meal and get health ratings). https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/eatly-eat-smart-snap-photo/id661113749
  19. 19.
    Deng, J., Dong, W., Socher, R., Li, L.-J., Li, K., Fei-Fei, L.: ImageNet: a large-scale hierarchical image database. In: Proceedings of IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), Miami, Florida, USA (2009)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lin, T.Y., Maire, M., Belongie, S., Hays, J., Perona, P., Ramanan, D., Dollár, P., Zitnick, C.L.: Microsoft COCO: common objects in context. In: Fleet, D., Pajdla, T., Schiele, B., Tuytelaars, T. (eds.) ECCV 2014, Part V. LNCS, vol. 8693, pp. 740–755. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Krizhevsky, A., Sutskever, I., Hinton, G.E.: ImageNet classification with deep convolutional neural networks. In: NIPS, p. 4 (2012)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hinton, G.E., Osindero, S., Teh, Y.-W.: A fast learning algorithm for deep belief nets. Neural Comput. 18, 1527–1554 (2006)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Scientists See Promise in Deep-Learning Programs, by John Markoff, New York Times (2012). http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/24/science/scientists-see-advances-in-deep-learning-a-part-of-artificial-intelligence.html
  24. 24.
    Bengio, Y., Yao, L., Alain, G., Vincent, P.: Generalized denoising auto-encoders as generative models. In: Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pp. 899–907 (2013)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Salakhutdinov, R., Hinton, G.E.: Deep boltzmann machines. In: International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, pp. 448–455 (2009)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Girshick, R., Donahue, J., Darrell, T., Malik, J.: Rich feature hierarchies for accurate object detection and semantic segmentation. In: 2014 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), pp. 580–587 (2014)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Simonyan, K., Zisserman, A.: Very deep convolutional networks for large-scale image recognition, arXiv preprint arXiv:1409.1556 (2014)
  28. 28.
    Zeiler, M.D., Fergus, R.: Visualizing and understanding convolutional networks. In: Fleet, D., Pajdla, T., Schiele, B., Tuytelaars, T. (eds.) ECCV 2014, Part I. LNCS, vol. 8689, pp. 818–833. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Szegedy, C., Liu, W., Jia, Y., Sermanet, P., Reed, S., Anguelov, D., et al.: Going deeper with convolutions. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), pp. 1–9 (2015)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nair, V., Hinton, G.E.: Rectified linear units improve restricted boltzmann machines. In: Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML 2010), pp. 807–814 (2010)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kawano, Y., Yanai, K.: Foodcam: a real-time food recognition system on a smartphone. Multimedia Tools Appl. 74, 5263–5287 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chen, M., Dhingra, K., Wu, W., Yang, L., Sukthankar, R.: PFID: pittsburgh fast-food image dataset. In: 2009 16th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), pp. 289–292 (2009)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kawano,Y., Yanai, K.: Food image recognition with deep convolutional features. In: Proceedings of the 2014 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing, pp. 589–593. Adjunct Publication (2014)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    LeCun, Y., Bottou, L., Bengio, Y., Haffner, P.: Gradient-based learning applied to document recognition. Proc. IEEE 86, 2278–2324 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hubel, D.H., Wiesel, T.N.: Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat’s visual cortex. J. Physiol. 160, 106–154 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lin, M., Chen, Q., Yan, S.: Network in network, arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.4400 (2013)
  37. 37.
    He, K., Sun, J.: Convolutional neural networks at constrained time cost. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 5353–5360 (2015)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jia, Y., Shelhamer, E., Donahue, J., Karayev, S., Long, J., Girshick, R., et al.: Caffe: convolutional architecture for fast feature embedding. In: Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Multimedia, pp. 675–678 (2014)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bossard, L., Guillaumin, M., Van Gool, L.: Food-101 – Mining discriminative components with random forests. In: Fleet, D., Pajdla, T., Schiele, B., Tuytelaars, T. (eds.) ECCV 2014, Part VI. LNCS, vol. 8694, pp. 446–461. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chang Liu
    • 1
  • Yu Cao
    • 1
  • Yan Luo
    • 1
  • Guanling Chen
    • 1
  • Vinod Vokkarane
    • 1
  • Yunsheng Ma
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of Massachusetts LowellLowellUSA
  2. 2.The University of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA

Personalised recommendations