Temporal and Spatial Design of Explanations in a Multimodal System

  • Florian NothdurftEmail author
  • Frank Honold
  • Wolfgang Minker
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9732)


Modern dialog systems are known to act user-specific. They apply individual decisions for content presentation and course adaptation. However, it is still an open research question how additional, but required explanations should be integrated best into a given dialog structure. Previous research focused on the improvement of user knowledge models and its fine-grained use in human-computer interaction, but does not directly address the temporal and spatial aspects of presentation when it comes to explanations. In this paper, we introduce different strategies for an ad-hoc integration of required explanations. We describe a user study, and show which parameters from the fields of user experience, personality, and cognitive load theory have what effects on the applied strategies. We expect that our findings can help to increase usability and decrease unwanted cognitive load.


Dialog Adaption Multimodal Explanation HCI 



This work was supported by the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre SFB/TRR 62 “Companion-Technology for Cognitive Technical Systems” which is funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).


  1. 1.
    Anderson, J., Boyle, C., Reiser, B.: Intelligent tutoring systems. Science 228, 456–462 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Behnke, G., Ponomaryov, D., Schiller, M., Bercher, P., Nothdurft, F., Glimm, B., Biundo, S.: Coherence across components in cognitive systems - one ontology to rule them all. In: Proceedings of the 25th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI 2015). AAAI Press (2015)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bercher, P., Richter, F., Hörnle, T., Geier, T., Höller, D., Behnke, G., Nothdurft, F., Honold, F., Minker, W., Weber, M., Biundo, S.: A planning-based assistance system for setting up a home theater. In: Proceedings of the 29th National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI 2015), pp. 4264–4265. AAAI Press (2015)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brusilovsky, P., Millán, E.: User models for adaptive hypermedia and adaptive educational systems. In: Brusilovsky, P., Kobsa, A., Nejdl, W. (eds.) Adaptive Web 2007. LNCS, vol. 4321, pp. 3–53. Springer, Heidelberg (2007). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fischer, G.: User modeling in human–computer interaction. User Model. User-Adap. Inter. 11(1–2), 65–86 (2001)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hassenzahl, M., Burmester, M., Koller, F.: AttrakDiff: Ein Fragebogen zur Messung wahrgenommener hedonischer und pragmatischer Qualität. In: Szwillus, G., Ziegler, J. (eds.) Mensch & Computer 2003: Interaktion in Bewegung, pp. 187–196. B. G. Teubner, Stuttgart (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Honold, F., Bercher, P., Richter, F., Nothdurft, F., Geier, T., Barth, R., Hoernle, T., Schüssel, F., Reuter, S., Rau, M., Bertrand, G., Seegebarth, B., Kurzok, P., Schattenberg, B., Minker, W., Weber, M., Biundo, S.: Companion-technology: Towards user- and situation-adaptive functionality of technical systems. In: 10th International Conference on Intelligent Environments (IE 2014), pp. 378–381. IEEE (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Honold, F., Schüssel, F., Weber, M.: Adaptive probabilistic fission for multimodal systems. In: Proceedings of the 24th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference, OzCHI 2012, pp. 222–231. ACM, New York, 26–30 November 2012Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jackson, P.: Introduction to Expert Systems, 2nd edn. Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc., Boston (1990)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jokinen, K., Kanto, K.: User expertise modelling and adaptivity in a speech-based e-mail system. In: Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics, p. 87. Association for Computational Linguistics (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Klepsch, M., F.W., Seufert, T.: Differentiated measurement of cognitive load: Possible or not? (2015, in press)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nothdurft, F., Minker, W.: Using multimodal resources for explanation approaches in technical systems. In: Proceedings of the 8th Conference on International Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2012), pp. 411–415 (2012)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rammstedt, B., John, O.P.: Short version of the ‘Big Five Inventory’ (BFI-K). Diagnostica : Zeitschrift für psychologische Diagnostik und differentielle Psychologie 4, 195–206 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wendemuth, A., Biundo, S.: A companion technology for cognitive technical systems. In: Esposito, A., Esposito, A.M., Vinciarelli, A., Hoffmann, R., Müller, V.C. (eds.) COST 2012. LNCS, vol. 7403, pp. 89–103. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Florian Nothdurft
    • 1
    Email author
  • Frank Honold
    • 2
  • Wolfgang Minker
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Communications EngineeringUlm UniversityUlmGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Media InformaticsUlm UniversityUlmGermany

Personalised recommendations