Users’ Sense-Making of an Affective Intervention in Human-Computer Interaction

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9733)

Abstract

This qualitative interview study builds on an empirical experiment in which an affective intervention was given to users in a critical dialog situation of human-computer interaction (HCI). The applied intervention addressed users on a personal level by asking for their thoughts and feelings. Since this is still an unusual behavior for a technical system, the aim of the present study was to investigate how users reason about this. Three different kinds of individual sense-making processes regarding the intervention were worked out. These clarify that a personal level of interaction between system and user is only appropriate for some users, whereas it also can have adverse effects on others. By explicating users’ experiences and conceptions, this study contributes to research on affective interventions in HCI that in the past was mainly focused on measurements of effectiveness rather than on understanding users‘inner processes regarding such interventions.

Keywords

Intervention User experience Qualitative research Interviews Affective computing Human-Computer interaction 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The present study is performed in the framework of the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre SFB/TRR 62 “A Companion-Technology for Cognitive Technical Systems” funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). The responsibility for the content of this paper lies with the authors.

References

  1. 1.
    Wilks, Y.: Artificial companions. Interdiscipl. Sci. Rev. 30(2), 145–152 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wendemuth, A., Biundo, S.: A companion technology for cognitive technical systems. In: Esposito, A., Esposito, A.M., Vinciarelli, A., Hoffmann, R., Müller, V.C. (eds.) COST 2102. LNCS, vol. 7403, pp. 89–103. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Prendinger, H., Mayer, S., Mori, J., Ishizuka, M.: Persona effect revisited. In: Rist, T., Aylett, R.S., Ballin, D., Rickel, J. (eds.) IVA 2003. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2792, pp. 283–291. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hone, K.: Empathic agents to reduce user frustration: the effects of varying agent characteristics. Interact. Comput. 18, 227–245 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Partala, T., Surakka, V.: The effects of affective interventions in human–computer interaction. Interact. Comput. 16, 295–309 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Klein, J., Moon, Y., Picard, R.W.: This computer responds to user frustration: theory, design and results. Interact. Comput. 14, 119–140 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Beale, R., Creed, C.: Affective interaction: how emotional agents affect users. Int. J. Hum.-Comput. St. 67, 755–776 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Frommer, J., Rösner, D., Lange, J., Haase, M.: Giving computers personality? Personality in computers is in the eye of the user. In: Rojc, M., Campbell, N. (eds.) Coverbal Synchrony in Human-Machine Interaction, pp. 41–71. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Krüger, J., Wahl, M., Frommer, J.: Making the system a relational partner: users’ ascriptions in individualization-focused interactions with companion-systems. In: Berntzen, L., Böhm, S. (eds.) CENTRIC 2015, The Eighth International Conference on Advances in Human-oriented and Personalized Mechanisms, Technologies, and Services, pp. 48–54. IARIA XPS Press/s.l (2015)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wahl, M., Krüger, J., Frommer, J.: From anger to relief: five ideal types of users experiencing an affective intervention in HCI. In: Berntzen, L., Böhm, S. (eds.) CENTRIC 2015, The Eighth International Conference on Advances in Human-Oriented and Personalized Mechanisms, Technologies, and Services, pp. 55–61. IARIA XPS Press/s.l (2015)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dahlbäck, N., Jönsson, A., Ahrenberg, L.: Wizard of Oz studies—why and how. Knowl.-Based Syst. 6, 258–266 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rösner, D., Frommer, J., Friesen R., Haase, M., Lange, J., Otto, M.: LAST MINUTE: a multimodal corpus of speech-based user-companion interactions. In: LREC Conference Abstracts, pp. 96–104. LREC, Istanbul (2012)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Frommer, J., Rösner, D., Haase, M., Lange, J., Friesen, R., Otto, M.: Project A3 prevention of Negative courses of dialogues: wizard of Oz experiment operator’s manual. In: Working Paper of the Collaborative Research Project/Transregio 62 “A Companion Technology for Cognitive Technical Systems”. Pabst Science Publication, Lengerich (2012)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grawe, K.: Outline of a general psychotherapy. Psychotherapeut 40, 130–145 (1995)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lange, J., Frommer, J.: Subjektives Erleben und intentionale Einstellung in Interviews zur Nutzer-Companion-Interaktion [Subjective experience and intentional stance in interveiws regarding user-companion interaction (in German)]. In: Heiß, H.-U., Pepper, P., Schlinghoff, H., Schneider, J. (eds.) Informatik 2011. LNI, vol. 192, p. 240. Köllen, Bonn (2011)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kuckartz, U.: MAXQDA: qualitative data analysis. VERBI Softw., Berlin (2007)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mayring, P.: Qualitative content analysis: theoretical foundation, basic procedures and software solution, p. 143 (2014). http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-395173
  18. 18.
    Tesch, R.: Qualitative research analysis types and software tools. Palmer Press, New York (1990)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Reeves, B., Nass, C.: The Media Equation. How People Treat Computers, Television, and New Media Like Real People and Places. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1996)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nass, C., Moon, Y.: Machines and mindlessness: social responses to computers. J. Soc. Issues 56(1), 81–103 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Medical FacultyOtto von Guericke University MagdeburgMagdeburgGermany

Personalised recommendations