Advertisement

Smiling in a Wizard of Oz Experiment: Emotional vs. Social Smiles, General Effects and Sex Differences

  • Martin Krippl
  • Matthias Haase
  • Julia Krüger
  • Jörg Frommer
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9731)

Abstract

Derks et al. (2008) showed the similarity of user’s emotional involvement in human-human-interaction compared to human-computer-interaction. This implies display rules and gender norms on display rules. In a Wizard of Oz Experiment users had to overcome two challenging situations, were emotions should be induced. Emotional smiles and social smiles were categorized after facial movements were coded with the Facial Action Coding System (Ekman and Friesen 1978). Emotional smiles were more frequent during one of the challenges compared to the baseline, showing that emotion induction was successful. Social smiles were more frequent at the start of the experiment compared to the challenges, but only for woman. This supports the assumption of Derks et al. (2008) that the display rule “smile at the start of on interaction” is only valid for woman. Together the results back the idea that computers are seen as human-like counterparts.

Keywords

Smiling Emotional smile Social smile FACS Sex differences Display rules Gender norms 

References

  1. Derks, D., Fischer, A.H., Bos, A.E.R.: The role of communication in computer-mediated communication: A review. Comput. Hum. Behav. 24, 766–785 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ekman, P., Friesen, W.V.: Facial Action Coding System. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto (1978)Google Scholar
  3. Ekman, P., Friesen, W.V.: Felt, false, and miserable smiles. J. Nonverbal Behav. 6, 238–258 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ekman, P., Friesen, W.V., Hager, J.C.: Facial Action Coding System - The Manual on CD ROM. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (2002)Google Scholar
  5. Ekman, P., Sorensen, E.R., Friesen, W.V.: Pan-cultural elements in facial displays of emotion. Science 164(3875), 86–88 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Epley, N., Waytz, A., Cacioppo, J.T.: On seeing human: a three-factor theory of anthropomorphism. Psychol. Rev. 114(4), 864–886 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Frommer, J., Michaelis, B., Rösner, D., Wendemuth, A., Friesen, R., Haase, M., Siegert, I.: Towards emotion and affect detection in the multimodal LAST MINUTE corpus. In: Paper Presented at the LREC, Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, Istanbul (2012)Google Scholar
  8. Hoque, M., Picard, R.W.: Acted vs. natural frustration and delight: many people smile in natural frustration. In: Paper Presented at the 2011 IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face & Gesture Recognition and Workshops (FG 2011) (2011)Google Scholar
  9. Kassam, K.S., Mendes, W.B.: The effects of measuring emotion: physiological reactions to emotional situations depend on whether someone is asking. PLoS ONE 8(6), e64959 (2013). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064959 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Krüger, J., Wahl, M., Frommer, J.: Making the system a relational partner: users’ ascriptions in individualization focused interactions with companion-systems. In: Paper Presented at the CENTRIC 2015: The Eighth International Conference on Advances in Human-Oriented and Personalized Mechanisms, Technologies, and Services, Barcelona (2015)Google Scholar
  11. LaFrance, M., Hecht, M.A., Paluck, E.L.: The contingent smile: a meta-analysis of sex differences in smiling. Psychol. Bull. 129, 305–334 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Papa, A., Bonanno, G.A.: Smiling in the face of adversity: The interpersonal and intrapersonal functions of smiling. Emotion 8(1), 1–12 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rösner, D., Frommer, J., Friesen, R., Haase, M., Lange, J., Otto, M.: LAST MINUTE: a multimodal corpus of speech-based user-companion interactions. In: Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2012), ELRA. http://lrec.elra.info/proceedings/lrec2012/pdf/550_Paper.pdf (2012). Accessed Sept 2015

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Krippl
    • 1
  • Matthias Haase
    • 2
  • Julia Krüger
    • 2
  • Jörg Frommer
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Psychology, Department Methodology, Psychodiagnostics and Evaluation ResearchOtto-von-Guericke University of MagdeburgMagdeburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Medical FacultyOtto-von-Guericke University MagdeburgMagdeburgGermany

Personalised recommendations