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Evolution of TOR and Translation Control

  • Bruno D. FonsecaEmail author
  • Tyson E. Graber
  • Huy-Dung Hoang
  • Asier González
  • Alexander A. Soukas
  • Greco Hernández
  • Tommy Alain
  • Stephanie L. Swift
  • Ronit Weisman
  • Christian Meyer
  • Christophe Robaglia
  • Joseph Avruch
  • Michael N. Hall
Chapter

Abstract

The evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine protein kinase target of rapamycin (TOR) is a master controller of cell growth. TOR controls growth by promoting anabolic processes and inhibiting catabolic processes in response to nutrient availability, growth factors and cellular energy, which can be perturbed by environmental and cellular stresses. These upstream signals are integrated by TOR, which in turn modulates protein synthesis—an energetically demanding cellular process that requires tight regulation to minimize energy expenditure. The TOR pathway plays a central role in the control of protein synthesis through the phosphorylation of numerous substrates with well-characterized functions in ribosome biogenesis and the initiation and elongation steps of protein synthesis. The role of TOR in protein synthesis has been studied in extensive detail in several eukaryotic model systems, and consequently, a great deal is now known about how TOR controls protein synthesis in eukaryotes. In this book chapter, we provide an evolutionary perspective of the TOR pathway in the control of protein synthesis and ribosome biogenesis across eukaryotes (from unicellular to multicellular organisms).

Keywords

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Schizosaccharomyces pombe Drosophila melanogaster Caenorhabditis elegans Arabidopsis thaliana Mammals TOR (Target of Rapamycin) Ribosome biogenesis mRNA translation Protein synthesis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank all of the scientists in the TOR field for their contributions to our present understanding of the TOR pathway. We apologize to the scientists whose work was not acknowledged or discussed in further detail, in particular those who have contributed to the elucidation of the signaling pathways up- and downstream of TOR that regulate cellular functions other than mRNA translation. The authors wish to thank the various funding agencies that have contributed to research in our laboratories over the many years of the study of TOR. The authors also wish to thank the following funding agencies that currently fund their research: A.G. and M.N.H. acknowledge support from the Louis Jeantet Foundation, the Swiss National Science Foundation and the Canton of Basel. B.D.F. and T.A. gratefully acknowledge financial support from Prostate Cancer Canada. The laboratories of C.M. and C.R. are supported by ANR grants TRANSLATOR and DECORATOR; CR is also supported by the A*MIDEX project (no. ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02).

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruno D. Fonseca
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tyson E. Graber
    • 1
  • Huy-Dung Hoang
    • 1
  • Asier González
    • 2
  • Alexander A. Soukas
    • 3
  • Greco Hernández
    • 4
  • Tommy Alain
    • 1
  • Stephanie L. Swift
    • 1
  • Ronit Weisman
    • 5
    • 6
  • Christian Meyer
    • 7
  • Christophe Robaglia
    • 8
    • 9
    • 10
  • Joseph Avruch
    • 3
  • Michael N. Hall
    • 2
  1. 1.Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research InstituteOttawaCanada
  2. 2.Biozentrum, University of BaselBaselSwitzerland
  3. 3.Massachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  4. 4.Division of Basic ScienceNational Institute of CancerMexico CityMexico
  5. 5.Department of Molecular Microbiology and BiotechnologyTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  6. 6.Department of Natural and Life SciencesThe Open University of IsraelRaananaIsrael
  7. 7.Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, Unité Mixte de Recherche 1318, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, AgroParisTech, ERL CNRS 3559, Saclay Plant SciencesVersailles CedexFrance
  8. 8.Aix-Marseille Université, Laboratoire de Génétique et Biophysique des PlantesMarseilleFrance
  9. 9.CNRS, UMR 7265 Biologie Végétale & Microbiologie EnvironnementalesMarseilleFrance
  10. 10.CEA, IBEBMarseilleFrance

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