To deal with challenges as globalization and fast-changing environments, enterprises are progressively collaborating with others and becoming a Networked Enterprise (NE). In this context, Enterprise Interoperability (EI) is a crucial requirement that needs to be verified by enterprises when starting a relationship to avoid interoperability problems. The concepts of NE and EI are not easy to understand due the variety of interpretations that exist in the literature. Having a clear and shared understanding of the NE and the different interoperations between partners is a necessity to manage the interoperability development. In order to reach such an objective, this research work defines a meta-model for NE based on a systemic approach. Concepts related to EI are taken into account to highlight the importance of this ability (i.e. Interoperability), seen as a requirement, within a system to attain its targeted goals. Finally, a real case study is proposed to validate the defined meta-model.


Networked enterprise Enterprise interoperability Meta-model Systemic approach 



This work has been conducted in the context of the PLATINE project (PLAnning Transformation Interoperability in Networked Enterprises), financed by the national fund of research of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (FNR), under the grant C14/IS/8329172/R2.


  1. 1.
    Steen, M.W.A, Lankhorst, M.M., van de Wetering, R.G.: Modelling networked enterprises. In: Proceeding of the 6th International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC), pp. 109–119. IEEE Computer Society (2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Li, Q., Zhou, J., Peng, Q.-R., Li, C.-Q., Wang, C., Wu, J., Shao, B.-E.: Business processes oriented heterogeneous systems integration platform for networked enterprises, integration and information in networked enterprises. Comput. Ind. 61(2), 127–144 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chung, A.A.C., Yam, A.Y.K., Chan, M.F.S.: Networked enterprise: a new business model for global sourcing. Int. J. Prod. Econ. 87, 267–280 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bellini, E.: Which collaboration strategy for the networked enterprise in wine industry? technological and organizational challenges. In: Anastasi, G., Bellini, E., Di Nitto, E., Ghezzi, C., Tanca, L., Zimeo, E. (eds.) Networked Enterprises. LNCS, vol. 7200, pp. 17–30. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Solaimani, S.: The alignment of business model & business operations within networked-enterprise environments. Ph.D. thesis (2014)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Camarinha-Matos, L.M., Afsarmanesh, H., Galeano, N., Molina, A.: Collaborative networked organizations – concepts and practice in manufacturing enterprises. Comput. Ind. Eng.: CAIE: Int. J. 57(1), 46–60 (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jagdev, H.S., Thoben, K.-D.: Anatomy of enterprise collaborations. Prod. Plan. Control: Manage. Oper. 12(5), 437–451 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Basole, R.C., Rouse, W.B., McGinnis, L.F., Bodner, D.A., Kessler, W.C.: Models of complex enterprise networks. J. Enterp. Transform. 1(3), 208–230 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    De Reuver, M.: Governing mobile service innovation in co-evolving value networks. Ph.D. dissertation, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Allee, V.: Reconfiguring the value network. J. Bus. Strategy 21(4), 36–39 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. IEEE standard computer dictionary: a compilation of IEEE standard computer glossaries (1990)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Interoperability Development for Enterprise Application and Software (IDEAS), IDEAS Project Deliverables (WP1-WP7), Public Reports (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Boudjlida, N., Panetto, H.: The basics of interoperability: a curricula. In: 5th China - Europe International Symposium on Software Industry Oriented Education, CEISIE 2009, pp. 185–189. Wiley-ISTE (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mallek, S., Daclin, N., Chapurlat, V.: The application of interoperability requirement specification and verification to collaborative processes. Comput. Ind. 63(7), 643–658 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Roque, M., Chapurlat, V.: Interoperability in collaborative processes: requirements characterisation and proof approach. In: Camarinha-Matos, L.M., Paraskakis, I., Afsarmanesh, H. (eds.) PRO-VE 2009. IFIP AICT, vol. 307, pp. 555–562. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Naudet, Y., Latour, T., Guedria, W., Chen, D.: Towards a systemic formalisation of interoperability. Comput. Ind. 61(2), 176–185 (2010). Integration and Information in Networked EnterprisesCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Advanced Technologies for Interoperability of Heterogeneous Enterprise Networks and their Application (ATHENA): Deliverable Number: D.A4.2: Specification of Interoperability Framework and Profiles, Guidelines and Best Practices (2007)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    ISO: Advanced automation technologies and their applications — Part 1: Framework for enterprise interoperability, International Organization for Standardization, ISO 11354, ISO/TC 184/SC 5 (2011)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chen, D., Daclin, N.: Framework for enterprise interoperability. In: Interoperability for Enterprise Software and Applications: Proceedings of the Workshops and the Doctorial Symposium of the Second IFAC/IFIP I-ESA International Conference: EI2N, WSI, IS-TSPQ, pp. 77–88 (2006)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Panetto, H.: Towards a classification framework for interoperability of enterprise applications. Int. J. Comput. Integr. Manuf. 20(8), 727–740 (2007). Taylor & Francis: STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health TitlesCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Guedria, W.: A contribution to enterprise interoperability maturity assessment. Ph.D. thesis (2012)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bertalanffy, L.V.: General System Theory: Foundations, Development. Applications. Georges Braziller Inc., New York (1968)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vernadat, F.: Enterprise modeling in the context of enterprise engineering: state of the art and outlook. Int. J. Prod. Manage. Eng. [S.l.] 2(2), 57–73 (2014)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Giachetti, R.E.: Design of Enterprise Systems: Theory, Architecture, and Methods, 1st edn. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton (2010)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Winter, R.: Design science research in Europe. Eur. J. Inf. Syst. 17(5), 470–475 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hevner, A., March, S., Park, J., Ram, S.: Design science in information systems research. MIS Q. 28(1), 75–105 (2004)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Guédria, W., Gaaloul, K., Proper, H.A., Naudet, Y.: Research methodology for enterprise interoperability architecture approach. In: Franch, X., Soffer, P. (eds.) CAiSE 2013 Workshops. LNBIP, vol. 148, pp. 16–29. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Interoperability Research for Networked Enterprises Applications and Software (INTEROP): Deliverable DI.3 Enterprise Interoperability Framework and knowledge corpus (2007)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Naudet, Y., Latour, T., Chen, D.: A systemic approach to interoperability formalization. In: IFAC WC 2008, Invited Session on Semantic-Based Solutions for Enterprise Integration and Networking, Seoul, Korea (2008)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Guédria, W., Naudet, Y., Chen, D.: Interoperability maturity models – survey and comparison –. In: Meersman, R., Tari, Z., Herrero, P. (eds.) OTM-WS 2008. LNCS, vol. 5333, pp. 273–282. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Guédria, W., Naudet, Y., Chen, D.: Maturity model as decision support for enterprise interoperability. In: Meersman, R., Dillon, T., Herrero, P. (eds.) OTM-WS 2011. LNCS, vol. 7046, pp. 604–608. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Le Moigne, J.-L.: La theorie du systeme general, Theorie de la modelisation. Les Classiques du Reseau Intelligence de la Complexite (1994)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Naudet, Y., Guedria, W.: Extending the Ontology of Enterprise Interoperability (OoEI) using enterprise-as-system concepts. In: Mertins, K., Bénaben, F., Poler, R., Bourrières, J.-P. (eds.) I-ESA 2014, Proceedings of the International Conference on Interoperability for Enterprise Software and Applications. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chen, D., Vallespir, B., Doumeingts, G.: GRAI integrated methodology and its mapping onto generic enterprise reference architecture and methodology. Comput. Ind. 33, 387–394 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wiesner, S., Peruzzini, M., Hauge, J.B., Thoben, K.D.: Requirements engineering. In: Concurrent Engineering in the 21st Century, chap. 5, pp. 103–132 (2015)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hull, E., Jackson, K., Dick, J.: Requirement Engineering, pp. 1–20. Springer, London (2011)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chen, D., Vallespir, B., Daclin, N.: An approach for enterprise interoperability measurement. In: Model Driven Information Systems Engineering: Enterprise, User and System Models, Montpellier, France, vol. 341, pp. 1–12, June 2008Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yahia, E., Aubry, A., Panetto, H.: Formal measures for semantic interoperability assessment in cooperative enterprise information systems. Comput. Ind. 63(5), 443–457 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ford, T., Colombi, J., Graham, J., Jacques, D.: The interoperability score. In: Proceedings of the 5th Annual Conference on Systems Engineering Research, Hoboken, N.J (2007)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Department of Defense: C4ISR Architecture Working Group Final Report - Levels of Information System Interoperability. LISI), Washington, DC (1998)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Clark, T., Jones, R.: Organizational interoperability maturity model for c2. In: Proceedings of the Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Washington (1999)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    ATHENA Integrated Project. Framework for the Establishment and Management Methodology, ATHENA Deliverable DA1.4 (2005)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tolk, A., Muguira, J.A.: The levels of conceptual interoperability model. In: Fall Simulation Interoperability Workshop, USA (2003)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Spekman, R., Davis, E.W.: The extended enterprise: a decade later. Int. J. Phys. Distrib. Logistics Manage. 46(1), 43–61 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lau, W., Li, Y., Sinanceur, S.: Ecosystem for virtual enterprise. In: Camarinha-Matos, L.M., Afsarmanesh, H. (eds.) PRO-VE 2003. IFIP, vol. 134, pp. 111–120. Springer, Boston (2004)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Baum, H, Schütze, J.: A model of collaborative enterprise networks. In: Procedia CIRP, vol. 3, pp. 549–554. Elsevier Amsterdam (2012)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Livieri, B., Kaczmarek, M.: Modeling of collaborative enterprises - CSFs-driven high-level requirements. In: IEEE 17th Conference Business Informatics, vol. 1, pp. 199–208 (2015)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jagdev, H.S., Thoben, K.-D.: Typological issues in enterprise networks. Prod. Plann. Control: Manage. Oper. 12(5), 421–436 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
  50. 50.
    Concept Factory.
  51. 51.
  52. 52.
  53. 53.
  54. 54.
  55. 55.
    Anaya, V., Berio, G., Harzallah, M., Heymans, P., Matulevičius, R., Opdahl, A.L., Panetto, H., Verdecho, M.J.: The unified enterprise modelling language—overview and further work. Comput. Ind. 61, 99–111 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Vernadat, F.B.: The CIMOSA languages. In: Bernus, P., Mertins, K., Schmidt, G. (eds.) Handbook of Information Systems, pp. 243–263. Springer, Berlin (1998)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CNRS, CRAN UMR 7039Vandœuvre-lès-NancyFrance
  2. 2.Université de Lorraine, CRAN UMR 7039Vandœuvre-lès-NancyFrance
  3. 3.ITIS, TSSLuxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST)Esch-sur-AlzetteLuxembourg

Personalised recommendations