Website Location Strategies Review Under Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions

  • Qian WangEmail author
  • Chih-Hung Peng
  • Choon Ling Sia
  • Yu Tong
  • Yi-Cheng Ku
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9751)


With the rapidly development of Internet and e-commerce in recent years, broaden business into multicultural marketplaces is easier and more profitable, and an important step for a firm to exploit its new markets is to launch proper websites to communicate with customers in different areas. Culture is so diversified that the design strategies of website for different countries should be localized according to each culture. As a result, in this study, we will conduct a review based on the pervious scattered website localization design strategies and classify them into different cultural dimensions. Such classification can be a summary of the current studies on website localization, an indication for detecting future studies in this area, as well as a guideline for designing website in different cultures.


Website localization Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory 


  1. Ackerman, S.: Mapping user interface design to culture dimensions. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Internationalization of Products and Systems, Austin, TX, July 2002Google Scholar
  2. Alvarez, S.E.: Latin American feminisms “go global”: trends of the 1990s and challenges for the new millennium. In: Alvarez, S., Dagnino, E., Escobar, A. (eds.) Cultures of Politics, Politics of Cultures: Re-visioning Latin American Social Movements, pp. 293–324. Westview Press, Boulder (1998)Google Scholar
  3. Badre, A.: The effects of cross cultural interface design orientation on World Wide Web user performance (2001)Google Scholar
  4. Bochner, S.: Cross-cultural differences in the self concept a test of Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism distinction. J. Cross Cult. Psychol. 25(2), 273–283 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Callahan, E.: Cultural similarities and differences in the design of university web sites. J. Comput. Mediated Commun. 11(1), 239–273 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Card, S.K., Robertson, G.G., York, W.: The WebBook and the Web Forager: an information workspace for the World-Wide Web. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (1996)Google Scholar
  7. Dorfman, P.W., Howell, J.P.: Dimensions of national culture and effective leadership patterns: Hofstede revisited. Adv. Int. Comp. Manag. Res. Annu. 3, 127–149 (1988)Google Scholar
  8. Dormann, C., Chisalita, C.: Cultural values in web site design. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, ECCE11 (2002)Google Scholar
  9. Fernandez, D.R., Carlson, D.S., Stepina, L.P., Nicholson, J.D.: Hofstede’s country classification 25 years later. J. Soc. Psychol. 137(1), 43–54 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fukuyama, F.: Social capital and the global economy: a redrawn map of the world. Foreign Aff. 74(5), 89–103 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hall, E.T., Hall, MR.: Hidden Differences: Doing Business with the Japanese. Doubleday, New York (1987)Google Scholar
  12. Hofstede, G.: Culture and organizations. Int. Stud. Manag. Organ. 10(4), 15–41 (1980a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hofstede, G.: Motivation, leadership, and organization: do American theories apply abroad? Organ. Dyn. 9(1), 42–63 (1980b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hofstede, G.: Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values, vol. 5. Sage, Newbury Park (1984)Google Scholar
  15. Hofstede, G.: Cultures and Organisations-Software of the Mind: Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival. McGraw-Hill, London (1991)Google Scholar
  16. Huo, Y.P., Randall, D.M.: Exploring subcultural differences in Hofstede’s value survey: the case of the Chinese. Asia Pac. J. Manag. 8(2), 159–173 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jain, S.C.: Standardization of international marketing strategy: some research hypotheses. J. Mark. 53, 70–79 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Keller, K.L., Parameswaran, M., Jacob, I.: Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity. Pearson Education India, Delhi (2011)Google Scholar
  19. Lessem, R., Neubauer, F.-F.: European Management Systems: Towards Unity out of Cultural Diversity. McGraw-Hill, London (1994)Google Scholar
  20. Lewis, R.D.: Finland: Cultural Lone Wolf: Consequences in International Business. Transcreen Publications, Winchester (1992)Google Scholar
  21. Luna, D., Peracchio, L.A., de Juan, M.D.: Cross-cultural and cognitive aspects of web site navigation. J. Acad. Mark. Sci. 30(4), 397–410 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Marcus, A., Gould, E.W.: Crosscurrents: cultural dimensions and global Web user-interface design. Interactions 7(4), 32–46 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Miglani, J.: Forrester Research World Online Population Forecast, 2012 to 2017 (Global). Forrester Research, Cambridge (2012)Google Scholar
  24. Mueller, B.: Reflections of culture-an analysis of Japanese and American advertising appeals. J. Advertising Res. 27(3), 51–59 (1987)Google Scholar
  25. Nassar, M., Abdou, S.H.: Brand-building website design for independent hotels: a replicated model (2013)Google Scholar
  26. Pollay, R.W.: Measuring the cultural values manifest in advertising. Curr. Issues Res. Advertising 6(1), 71–92 (1983)Google Scholar
  27. Robbins, S.S., Stylianou, A.C.: A study of cultural differences in global corporate web sites. J. Comput. Inf. Syst. 42(2), 3–9 (2002)Google Scholar
  28. Søndergaard, M.: Research note: Hofstede’s consequences: a study of reviews, citations and replications. Organ. Stud. 15(3), 447–456 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sia, C.L., Lim, K.H., Leung, K., Lee, M.K., Huang, W.W., Benbasat, I.: Web strategies to promote internet shopping: is cultural-customization needed? MIS Q. 33, 491–512 (2009)Google Scholar
  30. Simon, S.J.: The impact of culture and gender on web sites: an empirical study. ACM SIGMIS Database 32(1), 18–37 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Singh, N., Boughton, P.D.: Measuring website globalization: a cross-sectional country and industry level analysis. J. Website Promot. 1(3), 3–20 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Singh, N., Fassott, G., Chao, M.C., Hoffmann, J.A.: Understanding international web site usage: a cross-national study of German, Brazilian, and Taiwanese online consumers. Int. Mark. Rev. 23(1), 83–97 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Singh, N., Kumar, V., Baack, D.: Adaptation of cultural content: evidence from B2C e-commerce firms. Eur. J. Mark. 39(1/2), 71–86 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Singh, N., Zhao, H., Hu, X.: Cultural adaptation on the web: a study of American companies’ domestic and Chinese websites. J. Glob. Inf. Manag. (JGIM) 11(3), 63–80 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tixier, M.: Globalization and localization of contents: evolution of major internet sites across sectors of industry. Thunderbird Int. Bus. Rev. 47(1), 15–48 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tricker, R.I.: Information resource management—a cross-cultural perspective. Inf. Manag. 15(1), 37–46 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Trompenaars, F., Hampden-Turner, C.: L’entreprise multiculturelle. Maxima-L. du Mesnil, Paris (1994)Google Scholar
  38. Tsikriktsis, N.: Does culture influence web site quality expectations? an empirical study. J. Serv. Res. 5(2), 101–112 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qian Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chih-Hung Peng
    • 1
  • Choon Ling Sia
    • 1
  • Yu Tong
    • 1
  • Yi-Cheng Ku
    • 2
  1. 1.City University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  2. 2.Department of Business AdministrationFu Jen Catholic UniversityNew TaipeiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations