Advertisement

The Ongoing Legal Status of Low-Lying States in the Climate-Changed Future

  • Alberto Costi
  • Nathan Jon Ross
Chapter
Part of the The World of Small States book series (WSS, volume 1)

Abstract

Low-lying States that may become uninhabitable because of climate change are confronted by many unique challenges, including whether their statehood status should continue if entire populations are forced to relocate to other States' territories. Since the criteria for establishing new States include a defined territory and a permanent population, it is sometimes assumed that these criteria are also essential for the continuity of statehood. This chapter examines the traditional Montevideo statehood criteria with respect to continuity of low-lying States, and highlights cases where States have relied on unorthodox means of meeting those criteria. It surveys alternative types of international legal personality. The analysis finds no authority to support extinguishing the legal personality of these States because of factual changes to the Montevideo criteria. It argues there is potential for either innovative solutions for maintaining statehood, or for converting to an alternative legal personality.

Keywords

United Nations Legal Personality Advisory Opinion International Climate Change Land Territory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. ABC News (2 April 2007) Kiribati’s President: ‘Our Lives Are At Stake’. ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/story?id=3002001&page=1. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  2. Accordance with law of the unilateral declaration of independence in respect of Kosovo (Advisory Opinion) [2010] ICJ Rep 40Google Scholar
  3. Administrative Court of Cologne (1989) In re Duchy of Sealand [1978] 80 ILR 683Google Scholar
  4. Agreement between Tuvalu and Kiribati regarding their Maritime Boundary (29 August 2012)Google Scholar
  5. Alliance of Small Island States, www.aosis.org
  6. Anderson R (2004) A definition of peace. Peace Confl J Peace Psychol 10(2):101–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Annan K (2004) The rule of law and transitional justice in conflict and post-conflict societies: Report of the Secretary-General (23 August 2004) S/2004/616Google Scholar
  8. Asylum Case (Colombia/Peru) (Merits) [1950] ICJ Rep 266Google Scholar
  9. Banderas News (24 June 2009) Mexico Claims to Gulf Shrink with Island’s Loss. http://www.banderasnews.com/0906/nr-claimstogulf.htm. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  10. Barnett J, Adger WN (2003) Climate dangers and atoll counties. Climate Change 61:321–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barnett J, Campbell J (2010) Climate change and small Island states: power, knowledge and the South Pacific. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Besson S (2009) The authority of international law – lifting the state Veil. Syd LR 31(3):343–380Google Scholar
  13. Bolatagici L (1 December 2015) Fiji applauded for offer to take in people from Kiribati. The Fiji Times. http://www.fijitimes.com/story.aspx?id=332149
  14. Boutros-Ghali B (1992) Empowering the United Nations. Foreign Aff 71(5):89–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brooks RE (2005) Failed states, or the state as failure? U Chi L Rev 72(4):1159–1196Google Scholar
  16. Brownlie I (2008) Principles of international law, 7th edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  17. Burkett M (2011) The nation ex situ: on climate change, deterritorialized nationhood and the post-climate era. Climate Law 2:354–374. doi: 10.3233/CL-2011-040 Google Scholar
  18. Charter of the United NationsGoogle Scholar
  19. Chimni BS (2007) The past, present and future of international law: a critical third world approach. Melb J Intl Law 8:499–515Google Scholar
  20. Claude IL Jr (1993) The tension between principle and pragmatism in international relations. Rev Intl Stud 19(3):215–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States 575 UNTS 159 (opened for signature 18 March 1965, entered into force 14 October 1966)Google Scholar
  22. Costi A, Boister N (2006) ‘Régionalisation’ du droit pénal international dans le Pacifique: enjeux et perspectives. In: Boister N, Costi A (eds) Droit Pénal International dans le Pacifique : Tentatives d’Harmonisation Régionale/Regionalising International Criminal Law in the Pacific. NZACL, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  23. Cox N (2006) The continuing question of sovereignty and the sovereign military order of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta. Aust ILJ 13:211–232Google Scholar
  24. Crawford J (1979) The creation of states in international law. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  25. Crawford J (2006) The creation of states in international law, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  26. Crawford J (2012) Brownlie’s principles of public international law, 8th edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cuen D (11 September 2009) Mexico’s Missing Island. BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/documentaries/2009/09/090910_world_stories_mexico_missing_island.shtml. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  28. Deposit by Kiribati of list of geographical coordinates of points, pursuant to article 16, paragraph 2, article 47, paragraph 9, and article 75, paragraph 2, of the Convention (2 January 2015) M.Z.N.111.2015.LOSGoogle Scholar
  29. Deposit by the Republic of the Marshall Islands of geographical coordinates of points, pursuant to article 16, paragraph 2, article 47, paragraph 9, and article 75, paragraph 2, and article 84, paragraph 2 of the Convention (3 May 2016) M.Z.N.120.2016.LOSGoogle Scholar
  30. Deposit by Tuvalu of lists of coordinates of points, pursuant to article 16, paragraph 2, article 47, paragraph 9, and article 75, paragraph 2, and article 84, paragraph 2, of the Convention (4 September 2013) M.Z.N.98.2013.LOSGoogle Scholar
  31. Displacement Solutions (2010) Climate Change Displaced Persons and Housing, Land and Property Rights: Preliminary Strategies for Rights-Based Planning and Programme to Resolve Climate-Induced Displacement. Resource document. Displacement Solutions. http://displacementsolutions.org/files/documents/DS_Climate_change_strategies.pdf. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  32. Doherty B (7 January 2012) Climate change castaways consider move to Australia. Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/environment/climate-change/climate-change-castaways-consider-move-to-australia-20120106-1pobf.html. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  33. Dupont A, Pearman G (2006) Heating up the Planet: climate change and security, Lowy Institute Paper 12. Resource document. Lowy Institute for International Policy. http://www.lowyinstitute.org/publications/heating-planet-climate-change-and-security. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  34. Duursma JC (1996) Fragmentation and the international relations of micro-states: self-determination and statehood. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  35. Expert Group on Global Climate Obligations (2015) Oslo principles on global climate change obligations. Resource Document. Global Justice Program. http://globaljustice.macmillan.yale.edu/news/oslo-principles-global-climate-change-obligations. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  36. Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD (eds) (2014a) Climate Change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability: Working Group II Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  37. Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD (eds) (2014b) Climate Change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability: summary for policy makers. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  38. Fitzpatrick M (2013) What accounts for the varying rates of sea level rise in different locations? Union of Concerned Scientists. http://www.ucsusa.org/publications/ask/2013/sea-level-rise.html. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  39. Flemming M (2014) Auschwitz, the Allies and Censorship of the Holocaust. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Foster JM (6 March 2014) Epic King Tides Offer Glimpse of Climate Change in Marshall Islands. Think Progress. https://thinkprogress.org/epic-king-tides-offer-glimpse-of-climate-change-in-marshall-islands-8a9d0d90947f#.aj5g4vsf3. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  41. Fowler MR, Bunck JM (1995) Power and the sovereign state. Pennsylvania State University Press, University ParkGoogle Scholar
  42. Gayoom MA (1987) Address to the United Nations General Assembly (42nd Session of the United Nations General Assembly on the Special Debate on Environment and Development, United Nations Headquarters, New York, 19 October 1987). http://maldivesmission.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=931:death-of-a-nation-speech&catid=93:statements-from-unga-42-1987&Itemid=56. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  43. Grant JP, Barker JC (2009) Parry & grant encyclopædic dictionary of international law, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Grant TD (1999) Defining statehood: the Montevideo convention and its discontents. Colum J Transnatl Law 37:403–457Google Scholar
  45. Hansen J, Sato M, Hearty P, Reudy R, Kelley M, Masson-Delmotte V, Russell G, Tselioudis G, Cao J, Rignot E, Velicogna I, Tormey B, Donovan B, Kandiano E, von Schuckmann K, Kharecha P, Legrande AN, Bauer M, Lo K (2015) Ice melt, sea level rise and superstorms: evidence from paleoclimate data, climate modeling, and modern observations that 2°C global warming is highly dangerous. Atmos Chem Phys 16:3761–3812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Harrison R (2007) The moral is: states make laws. In: Freeman M, Harrison R (eds) Law and philosophy: current legal issues, vol 10. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  47. Hodgkinson D, Burton T, Anderson H, Young L (2010) ‘The Hour When the Ship Comes In’: a convention for persons displaced by climate change. Monash Univ Law Rev 36(1):69–120Google Scholar
  48. Hussain T (2011) Statement by Ms Thilmeeza Hussain, Deputy Permanent Representative of the Maldives to the United Nations, on Behalf of the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) During Closing Session of the Preparatory Committee Meeting of the UNCSD, 08 March 2011. United Nations Division for Sustainable Development. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/18489aosis-closing.pdf. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  49. International Law Commission (2006) Draft articles on diplomatic protections with commentaries. YILC II(Pt 2):21–100Google Scholar
  50. The Island of Palmas case (or Miangas) (The Netherlands v USA) (1928) 2 UN Rep Intl Arb Awards 829 [Island of Palmas case]Google Scholar
  51. Jennings R, Watts A (eds) (1992) Oppenheim’s international law, vol 1, 9th edn. Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  52. Kahl C (2006) States, scarcity, and civil strife in the developing world. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  53. King A, Henley BJ (17 August 2016) We have almost certainly blown the 1.5-degree global warming target. Australian Geographic. http://www.australiangeographic.com.au/topics/science-environment/2016/08/15-degree-global-warming-target-likely-to-be-surpassed. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  54. Klabbers J (2013) International law. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Krasner SD (2001) Rethinking the sovereign state model. Rev Int Stud 27:17–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Legality of the Use by a State of Nuclear Weapons in Armed Conflict (Advisory Opinion) [1996] ICJ Rep 266Google Scholar
  57. Legal Status of Eastern Greenland (Judgements, Orders and Advisory Opinions) (1933) PCIJ 53, Series A/BGoogle Scholar
  58. Levine S (ed) (2009) Pacific ways: government and politics in the Pacific Islands. Victoria University Press, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  59. Little A (15 December 2015) What the Paris climate agreement means for vulnerable nations. The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/what-the-paris-climate-agreement-means-for-vulnerable-nations. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  60. Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Questions between Qatar and Bahrain (Qatar v Bahrain) (Merits) [2001] ICJ Rep 40Google Scholar
  61. Mathiesen K, Harvey F (8 December 2015) Climate coalition breaks cover in Paris to push for binding and ambitious deal. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/dec/08/coalition-paris-push-for-binding-ambitious-climate-change-deal. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  62. McAdam J (2010) ‘Disappearing States’, Statelessness and the Boundaries of International Law. UNSW Law Research Paper No. 2010-2Google Scholar
  63. McLeman R (2008) Climate change migration, refugee protection, and adaptive capacity building. McGill Int J Sustainable Dev Law Policy 4(1):1–18Google Scholar
  64. Milman O (7 October 2015) UN drops plan to help move climate change affected people. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/oct/07/un-drops-plan-to-create-group-to-relocate-climate-change-affected-people. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  65. Ministry of Environment, Energy and Water (2007) National Adaptation Program of Action: Republic of Maldives. Resource document. http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/napa/mdv01.pdf. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  66. Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States 165 LNTS 19 (opened for signature 26 December 1933, entered into force 26 December 1934) [Montevideo Convention]Google Scholar
  67. New Zealand Government (2009) Report of New Zealand’s Views on the Possible Security Implications of Climate Change. Report presented at the 64th UN General Assembly session, New York, September 2009Google Scholar
  68. Office of the President of Kiribati (26 September 2009) President tells of greatest challenge. Press release. http://www.climate.gov.ki/2009/09/26/president-tong-addresses-the-un-general-assembly/. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  69. Office of the President of Kiribati (2010) Relocation. http://www.climate.gov.ki/category/action/relocation/. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  70. Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 999 UNTS 171 (opened for signature 16 December 1966, entered into force 23 March 1976)Google Scholar
  71. Park S (2011) Climate Change and the Risk of Statelessness: The Situation of Low-lying Island States. Legal and Protection Policy Research Series, PPLA/2011/04. United Nations High Commissioner for RefugeesGoogle Scholar
  72. Paskal C (3 April 2010) Strange case of the disappearing islands. The New Zealand Herald. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/world/news/article.cfm?c_id=2&objectid=10635956. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  73. Peszke MA (2011) The British-Polish Agreement of August 1940: its antecedents, significance, and consequences. J Slavic Mil Stud 24:648–658. doi: 10.1080/13518046.2011.624474 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Powell JL (2016) Climate scientists virtually unanimous: anthropogenic global warming is true. Bull Sci Technol Soc 35(5–6):121–124. doi: 10.1177/0270467616634958 Google Scholar
  75. Ramesh R (10 November 2008) Paradise almost lost: Maldives seek to buy a new homeland. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2008/nov/10/maldives-climate-change. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  76. Randall A (7 October 2015) Not the end for displacement in Paris. UK Climate Change and Migration Coalition. http://climatemigration.org.uk/not-the-end-for-displacement-in-paris/. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  77. Rayfuse R (2009) W(h)ither Tuvalu? International Law and Disappearing States. UNSW Law Research Paper No. 2009-9Google Scholar
  78. Rayfuse R (2011) International law and disappearing states: maritime zones and the criteria for statehood. Environ Policy Law 41(6):281–287Google Scholar
  79. Reparation for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations (Advisory Opinion) [1949] ICJ Rep 174Google Scholar
  80. Republic of the Marshall Islands Maritime Zones Declaration Act 2016Google Scholar
  81. Respecting the Polish Forces in the United Kingdom AIR 2/4213 and WO 33/2389, National Archives, LondonGoogle Scholar
  82. Right of Passage over Indian Territory Case (Portugal v India) (Merits) [1960] ICJ Rep 6Google Scholar
  83. Rowling M (24 May 2016) Tuvalu PM urges new legal framework for climate migrants. Thomson Reuters Foundation News. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-humanitarian-summit-climatechange-mig-idUSKCN0YF2UD. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  84. Ryngaert C (2011) The legal status of the Holy See. Goettingen J Int Law 3:829–859. doi: 10.3249/1868-1581-3-3-ryngaert Google Scholar
  85. Ryngaert C, Sobrie S (2011) Recognition of states: international law or Realpolitik? LJIL 24(2):467–490. doi: 10.1017/S0922156511000100 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Shaig A (2006) Climate change vulnerability and adaption assessment of the maldives land and beaches. Centre for Disaster Studies, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  87. Shaw MN (2008) International law, 6th edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Shaw MN (2014) International law, 7th edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  89. Shearer I (ed) (1994) Starke’s international law, 11th edn. Butterworths, LondonGoogle Scholar
  90. Sinclair, E. (2008) The Changing Climate of New Zealand’s Security. Institute of Policy Studies, Working Paper 08/11, October 2008Google Scholar
  91. Soanes C, Stevenson A (eds) (2009) Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 11th edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  92. Sovereign Order of Malta (2016) Bilateral relations. https://www.orderofmalta.int/diplomatic-activities/bilateral-relations/. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  93. SPREP (2006) Pacific islands framework for action on climate change 2006–2015. Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme. http://www.sprep.org/climate_change/pycc/documents/PIFACC.pdf. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  94. Statute of the International Court of JusticeGoogle Scholar
  95. Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G, Tignor MMB, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) (2013) Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis: Working Group 1 Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  96. Taylor C (1997) A modest proposal: statehood and sovereignty in a global age. U Pa J Int Econ Law 18(3):745–809Google Scholar
  97. Thomson P (2011) Statement by H.E. Mr. Peter Thomson, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of the Republic of the Fiji Islands to the United Nations, on Behalf of the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) During the Opening Session of the Preparatory Committee Meeting of the Commission on Sustainable Development, United Nations Headquarters, New York, 07 March 2011. United Nations Division for Sustainable Development. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/rio20/2ndprepcom. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  98. Tinoco Claims Arbitration (United Kingdom v Costa Rica) (1923) 1 UN Rep Intl Arb Awards 369Google Scholar
  99. UNFCCC (1992) United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 1771 UNTS 107 (opened for signature on 9 May 1992, entered into force 21 March 1994). [UNFCCC]Google Scholar
  100. UNFCCC (2010) Report of the Conference of the Parties on its sixteenth session, held in Cancun from 29 November to 10 December 2010. FCCC/CP/2010/7/Add.1 (2010), at Decision 1/CP.16 [UNFCCC Cancun Adaptation Framework]Google Scholar
  101. UNFCCC (2015a) Working of the Contact Group on item 3: Negotiating text: Advanced unedited version: 12 February 2015: Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action, Second session, part eight, 8–13 February 2015, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  102. UNFCCC (2015b) Conference of the Parties: Twenty-first session: Paris, 30 November to 11 December 2015: Adoption of the Paris Agreement. FCCC/CP/L.9/Rev.1, annex. [UNFCCC Paris Agreement]Google Scholar
  103. UNGA (1970) Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation Among States in Accordance with the Charter of the United Nations. GA Res 26/25, XXV (1970). [UNGA Declaration on Friendly Relations]Google Scholar
  104. UNGA (2008) Follow-up to and Implementation of the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States. GA Res 63/213, A/RES/63/213 (2008)Google Scholar
  105. UNHCR (2009) Climate Change And Statelessness: An Overview, submission presented at 6th session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action under the UNFCCC, Bonn, 1–12 June 2009Google Scholar
  106. UNHCR (2011) Summary of Deliberations on Climate Change and Displacement, April 2011. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. http://www.unhcr.org/4da2b5e19.pdf. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  107. UNGA (2012) Declaration of the High-level Meeting of the General Assembly on the Rule of Law at the National and International Levels. GA Res 27/1, A/RES/67/1 (30 November 2012)Google Scholar
  108. UNHCR (2015) Guidance on Protecting People from Disasters and Environmental Change through Planned Relocation (“Guidance on Planned Relocation”). Brookings, UNHCR, and School of Foreign Service at Georgetown UniversityGoogle Scholar
  109. UN-OHRLLS (2009) The Alliance of Small Island States Climate Change Summit. United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States. http://unohrlls.org/meetings-conferences-and-special-events/the-alliance-of-small-islands-states-aosis-climate-change-summit/. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  110. United Nations (2016a) UN Data. United Nations Data. www.data.un.org. Accessed 7 Sept 2016Google Scholar
  111. United Nations (2016b) Non-member States. http://www.un.org/en/sections/member-states/non-member-states/index.html. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  112. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1833 UNTS 3 (opened for signature 10 December 1982, entered into force 16 November 1994)Google Scholar
  113. United Nations Security Council (17 December 1948) Application of Israel for Admission to Membership in the United Nations, S/PV 383, S-III, per United States Ambassador Jessup. https://unispal.un.org/DPA/DPR/unispal.nsf/0/437DD877E349151B052566CE006D9189. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  114. Valemie R (22 March 2016) Climate Change. The Fiji Times Online. http://www.fijitimes.com/story.aspx?id=346536. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  115. Vienna Convention on Succession of States in respect of Treaties 1946 UNTS 3 (opened for signature 23 August 1978, entered into force 6 November 1996)Google Scholar
  116. Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1155 UNTS 331 (opened for signature 23 May 1969, entered into force 27 January 1980). [VCLT]Google Scholar
  117. Wentz J, Burger M (2015) Designing a climate change displacement coordination facility: key issues for COP 21. Sabin Center for Climate Change Law, Columbia Law School, New York CityGoogle Scholar
  118. Western Sahara (Advisory opinion) [1975] 1975 ICJ Rep 12Google Scholar
  119. Willcox S (2015) Climate Change Inundation and Atoll Island States: Implications for Human Rights, Self-Determination and Statehood. PhD thesis, London School of Economics and Political ScienceGoogle Scholar
  120. World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future, 20 March 1987. United Nations. http://www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf. Accessed 7 Sept 2016
  121. Wyman KM (2013) Responses to climate migration. Harv Environ Law Rev 37(1):167–216Google Scholar
  122. Yamamoto L, Esteban M (2014) Atoll Island states and international law: climate change displacement and sovereignty. Springer, Heidelberg. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-38186-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Yamin F, Depledge J (2004) The international climate change regime: a guide to rules, institutions and procedures. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of LawVictoria University of WellingtonWellingtonNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations