Advertisement

Food Safety pp 113-123 | Cite as

Mycotoxins in Food and Food Products: Current Status

  • Shahzad Zafar Iqbal
  • Jinap Selamat
  • Agustin Ariño
Chapter

Abstract

Mycotoxins are naturally occurring, toxic secondary metabolites produced by different array of fungi. The name mycotoxin combines the Greek word mykes meaning “fungus” and the Latin word toxicum meaning “poison.” The term secondary metabolites are the compounds that are dispensable. Thousands of fungal secondary metabolites have been discovered, but currently 450 classes of mycotoxins are identified and characterized. This chapter deals with important groups of mycotoxins, such as aflatoxins, ochratoxins A, Zearalenone, fumonisins, and patulin, their toxicity, and health hazards on humans.

Keywords

Mycotoxins Toxicity Analysis Aflatoxins 

References

  1. Bennett JW, Klich M (2003) Mycotoxins. Clin Microbiol Rev 16:497–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berek L, Petri IB, Mesterhazy A, Téren J, Molnár J (2001) Effects of mycotoxins on human immune functions in vitro. Toxicol In Vitro 15:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blount WP (1961) Turkey “X” disease. J Br Turk Fed 1(52):55–61Google Scholar
  4. Bolger M, Coker RM, DiNovi M, Gaylor D, Gelderblom W, Olsen M, Paster N, Riley R, Shephard G, Speijers GJA (2001) Safety evaluation of certain mycotoxins in food: Fumonisins. Prepared by the 56th meeting of the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), WHO Food Additives Series No 47, pp 104–275, World Health Organization, Geneva, International Programme on Chemical SafetyGoogle Scholar
  5. Bompeis G, Cholodowski-Faivre D (2000) Thermotherapie et produits naturels, une technologie emergente. Arboricul Fruit 542:19–25Google Scholar
  6. Bryła M, Jędrzejczak R, Roszko M, Szymczyk K, Obiedzinski MW, Se-kul J et al (2013a) Application of molecularly imprinted polymers to determine B1, B2, and B3 fumonisins in cereal products. J Sep Sci 36:578–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bryła M, Roszko M, Szymczyk K, Jędrzejczak R, Obiedziński MW, Sękul J (2013b) Fumonisins in plant-origin food and fodder e a review. Food Addit Contam Part A 30(9):1626–1640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buchanan JR, Sommer NF, Fortlage RJ, Maxie EC, Mitchell FG, Hsieh DPH (1974) Patulin from Penicillium expansum in store fruits and pears. J Am Soc Horticult Sci 99:262–265Google Scholar
  9. Bullerman LB, Ryu D, Jackson LS (2002) Stability of fumonisins in food processing. Adv Exp Med Biol 504:195–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bürger MG, Brakhage AA, Creppy EE, Dirheimer GR, Oschenthaler RJ (1988) Toxicity and mutagenicity of patulin in different test systems. Arch Toxicol Suppl 12:347–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. CAST (2003) Mycotoxins: risks in plant, animal and human systems. Report no. 139. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Ames, IAGoogle Scholar
  12. Chelkowski J (1998) Distribution of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in cereal grains. In: Sinha KK, Bhatnagar D (eds) Mycotoxins in agriculture and food safety. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 45–64Google Scholar
  13. Creppy EE (1999) Human ochratoxicosis. J Toxicol Toxin Rev 18:277–293Google Scholar
  14. Devaraj H, Radha-Shanmugasundaram K, Shanmugasundaram ER (1982) Neurotoxic effect of patulin. Indian J Exp Biol 20:230–231Google Scholar
  15. Ellis WO, Smith JP, Simpson JP, Oldham JH (1991) Aflatoxins in food: occurrence, biosynthesis, effects on organism’s detection and methods of control. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 30:404–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. European Commission (EC) No 1881/2006 (2006) Commission Directive 2006/ 1881/EC of 19 December 2006, setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in food stuffs. Offic J Eur Comm L364:5–24Google Scholar
  17. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2006) Opinion of the scientific panel on the contaminants in the food chain on a request from the commission related to ochratoxin A in food. EFSA J 365:1–56Google Scholar
  18. Firsvad JC, Thrane U (1996) Mycotoxin production by food-borne fungi. In: Samson RA, Hoekstra ES, Frisvad JC, Filtenborg O (eds) Introduction to food-borne fungi, 5th edn. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Baarn, pp 251–260Google Scholar
  19. Halver JE (1965) Aflatoxicosis and rainbow trout hepatoma. In: Wogan GN (ed) Mycotoxins in foodstuffs. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp 209–234Google Scholar
  20. Hendrickse RG (1997) Of sick turkeys, kwashiorkor, malaria, perinatal mortality, heroin addicts and food poisoning: research on the influence of aflatoxins on child health in the tropics. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 91:787–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1993) Some naturally occurring substances, food items and constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxins, vol 56. World Health Organization, Lyon, pp 489–521Google Scholar
  22. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (2002) Fumonisin B1. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Some traditional herbal medicines, some mycotoxins, naphthalene and styrene, vol 82. IARC, Lyon, pp 301–366Google Scholar
  23. Iqbal SZ, Asi MR, Jinap S (2013) Natural occurrence of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin M1 in “Halva” and its ingredients. Food Control 34(2):404–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Iqbal SZ, Rabbani T, Asi MR, Jinap S (2014a) Assessment of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in breakfast cereals. Food Chem 157c:257–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Iqbal SZ, Nisar S, Asi MR, Jinap S (2014b) Natural incidence of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in chicken meat and eggs. Food Control 43c:98–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jarvis BB (2002) Chemistry and toxicology of molds isolated from water-damaged buildings. Mycotoxins and food safety. Adv Exp Med Biol 504:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jimenez M, Sanchis V, Mateo R, Hernandez E (1988) Detection and quantification of patulin and griseofulvin by high-pressure liquid chromatography in different strains of Penicillium griseofulvin Dierckx. Mycotoxin Res 4:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA) (2001) Ochratoxin A, in “Safety evaluations of specific mycotoxins”. Prepared by the fifty-sixth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, 6–15 February, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  29. Karabulut OA, Baykal N (2002) Evaluation of the use of microwave power for the control of postharvest diseases of peaches. Postharvest Biol Technol 26:237–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kendra DF, Dyer RB (2007) Opportunities for biotechnology and policy regarding mycotoxin issues in international trade. Int J Food Microbiol 119:147–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kralj Cigić I, Prosen H (2009) An overview of conventional and emerging analytical methods for the determination of mycotoxins. Int J Mol Sci 10(1):62–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lioi MB, Santoro A, Barbieri R, Salzano S, Ursini MV (2004) Ochratoxin A and zearalenone: a comparative study on genotoxic effects and cell death induced in bovine lymphocytes. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ 557:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Marasas WF, Riley RT, Hendricks KA, Stevens VL, Sadler TW et al (2004) Fumonisins disrupt sphingolipid metabolism, folate transport, and neural tube development in embryo culture and in vivo: a potential risk factor for human neural tube defects among populations consuming fumonisin-contaminated maize. J Nutr 134:711–716Google Scholar
  34. Munkvold GP, Desjardins AE (1997) Fumonisins in maize. Can we reduce their occurrence? Plant Dis 81:556–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ouanes Z, Abid S, Ayed I, Anane R, Mobio T, Creppy E, Bacha H (2003) Induction of micronuclei by Zearalenone in Vero monkey kidney cells and in bone marrow cells of mice: protective effect of Vitamin E. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ 538:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pagliuca G, Zironi E, Ceccolini A, Matera R, Serrazanetti GP, Pivac A (2005) Simple method for the simultaneous isolation and determination of fumonisin B1 and its metabolite aminopentol-1 in swine liver by liquid chromatography fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr B 819:97–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Paucod JC, Krivobok S, Vidal D (1990) Immunotoxicity testing of mycotoxins T-2 and Patulin on Balb/C mice. Acta Microbiol Hung 37:331–339Google Scholar
  38. Pfohl-Leszkowicz A, Manderville AR (2007) Review Ochratoxin A: an overview on toxicity and carcinogenicity in animals and humans. Mol Nutr Food Res 51:61–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rodrigues I, Handl J, Binder EM (2011) Mycotoxin occurrence in commodities, feeds and feed ingredients sourced in the Middle East and Africa. Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 4(3):168–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Roll R, Matthiaschk G, Korte A (1990) Embryotoxicity and mutagenicity of mycotoxins. J Environ Pathol Toxicol 10:1–7Google Scholar
  41. SCF (2000) Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on Fusarium toxins. Part 3: Fumonisin B1, 17 October 2000, SCF/Cs/CNTM/myc/24 Final, European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  42. Shephard GS (1998) Chromatographic determination of the fumonisin mycotoxins. J Chromatogr A 815:31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sydenham EW, Vismer HF, Marasas WFO, Brown N, Schlechter M, van der Westhuizen L et al (1995) Reduction of patulin in apple juice samples influence of initial processing. Food Control 6:195–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tsiplakou E, Anagnostopoulos C, Liapis K, Haroutounian SA, Zervas G (2014) Determination of mycotoxins in feedstuffs and ruminant’s milk using an easy and simple LC–MS/MS multiresidue method. Talanta 130:8–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Turner NW, Sabrahmanyam S, Piletsky SA (2009) Analytical methods for determination of mycotoxins: a review. Anal Chim Acta 2:168–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. World Health Organization (1996) Patulin. In: WHO food additives series 35Google Scholar
  47. Zain ME (2011) Impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals. J Saudi Chem Soc 15:129–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zinedine A, Soriano JM, Moltó JC, Mañes J (2007) Review on the toxicity, occurrence, metabolism, detoxification, regulations and intake of zearalenone: an oestrogenic mycotoxin. Food Chem Toxicol 45(1):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zychowski KE, Hoffmann AR, Ly HJ, Pohlenz C, Buentello A, Romoser A, Gatlin DM, Phillips TD (2013) The effect of aflatoxin-B1 on red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and assessment of dietary supplementation of NovaSil for the prevention of aflatoxicosis. Toxins 5:1555–1573CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shahzad Zafar Iqbal
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jinap Selamat
    • 1
    • 3
  • Agustin Ariño
    • 4
  1. 1.Food Safety Research Centre (FOSREC)Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Applied Chemistry and BiochemistryGovernment College University FaisalabadFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Institute of Tropical AgricultureUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Animal Production and Food Science, Veterinary FacultyUniversity of ZaragozaZaragozaSpain

Personalised recommendations