Advertisement

Urinary Tract Trauma

  • Maria Luisa Lobo
  • Jean-Nicolas Dacher
Chapter
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Evaluating a child who has sustained abdominal injury is a daily practice in a department of pediatric radiology. In this chapter, emphasis will be put on pediatric particularities of urinary tract injuries, with special focus on renal trauma. Obviously, renal trauma cannot be separated from other associated traumatic lesions. This is especially true in organizing the imaging strategy.

References

  1. Amerstorfer EE, Haberlik A, Riccabona M (2015) Imaging assessment of renal injuries in children and adolescents: CT or ultrasound? J Ped Surg 50:448–455CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Avanoglu A, Ulman I, Herek O, Ozok G, Gokdemir A (1996) Posterior urethral injuries in children. Br J Urol 77:597–600CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartley JM, Santucci RA (2012) Computed tomography findings in patients with pediatric blunt renal trauma in whom expectant (nonoperative) management failed. Urology 80:1338–1343CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baskin LS, McAninch JW (1993) Childhood urethral injuries: perspectives on outcome and treatment. Br J Urol 72:241–246CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Benya EC, Lim-Dunham JE, Landrum O, Statter M (2000) Abdominal sonography in examination of children with blunt abdominal trauma. Am J Roentgenol 174:1613–1616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhatt S, Dogra VS (2008) Role of US in testicular and scrotal trauma. Radiographics 28:1617–1629CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bisset GS, Strife JL, Kirks DR (1991) Genitourinary tract. In: Kirks D (ed) Practical pediatric imaging. Little, Brown, Boston, pp 905–1056Google Scholar
  8. Brenner DJ, Hall EJ (2007) Computed tomography – an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med 357:2277–2284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown SL, Elder JS, Spirnak JP (1998) Are pediatric patients more susceptible to major renal injury from blunt trauma? J Urol 160:138–140CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Buckley JC, McAninch JW (2004) Pediatric renal injuries: management guidelines from a 25-year experience. J Urol 172:687–690CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Buckley JC, McAninch JW (2006) Use of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of testicular injuries in blunt scrotal trauma. J Urol 175:175–178CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Buckley JC, McAninch JW (2011) Revision of current American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Renal Injury grading system. J Trauma 70:35–37CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cannon GM Jr, Polsky EG, Smaldone MC et al (2008) Computerized tomography findings in pediatric renal trauma – indications for early intervention? J Urol 179:1529–1533CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Canon S, Recicar J, Head B et al (2014) The utility of initial and follow-up ultrasound reevaluation for blunt renal trauma in children and adolescents. J of Pediatr Urol 10:815–818CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chirdan LB, Uba AF, Yiltok SJ, Ramyil VM (2007) Paediatric blunt abdominal trauma: challenges of management in a developing country. Eur J Pediatr Surg 17:90–95CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Damasio MB, Darge K, Riccabona M (2013) Multidetector-CT in the paediatric urinary tract. Eur J Radiol 82:1118–1125CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Delarue A, Merrot T, Fahkro A, Alessandrini P, Guys JM (2002) Major renal injuries in children: the real incidence of kidney loss. J Pediatr Surg 37:1446–1450CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dugi DD 3rd, Morey AF, Gupta A et al (2010) American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grade 4 renal injury substratification into grades 4a (low risk) and 4b (high risk). J Urol 183:592–597CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Eeg KR, Khoury AE, Halachmi S et al (2009) Single center experience with application of the ALARA concept to serial imaging studies after blunt renal trauma in children – is ultrasound enough? J Urol 181:1834–1840CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Figler BD, Malaeb BS, Voelzke B, Smith T, Wessells H (2013) External validation of a substratification of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma renal injury scale for grade 4 injuries. J Am Coll Surg 217:924–928CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Filiatriault D, Garel L (1995) Commentary: Pediatric blunt abdominal trauma: to sound or not to sound? Pediatr Radiol 25:329–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Freitas Filho LG, Carnevale J, Melo Filho AR, Vicente NC, Heinisch AC, Martins JL (2003) Posterior urethral injuries and the Mitrofanoff principle in children. BJU Int 91:402–405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Glassberg KI, Tolete-Velcek F, Ashley R, Waterhouse K (1979) Partial tears of prostatomembranous urethra in children. Urology 13:500–504CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gomez RG, Ceballos L, Coburn M et al (2004) Consensus statement on bladder injuries. BJU Int 94:27–32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Grattan-Smith JD, Jones RA (2008) Magnetic resonance urography in children. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 16:515–531CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Grimsby GM, Voelzke B, Hotaling J, Sorensen MD, Koyle M, Jacobs MA (2014) Demographics of pediatric renal trauma. J Urol 192:1498–1502CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Jacobs MA, Hotaling JM, Mueller BA et al (2012) Conservative management vs early surgery for high grade pediatric renal trauma – do nephrectomy rates differ? J Urol 187:1817–1822CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Kuan JK, Wright JL, Nathens AB et al (2006) American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. AAST Organ Injury Scale for kidney injuries predicts nephrectomy, dialysis and death in patients with blunt injuries and nephrectomy for penetrating injuries. J Trauma 60:351–356CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Le Dosseur P, Dacher JN, Pietrera P, Daudruy M, El Ferzli J (2005) Management of abdominal trauma in children. J Radiol 86:209–221CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Lougué-Sorgho LC, Lambot K, Gorincour G et al (2006) Traumatisme du rein chez l’enfant: bonnes pratiques en imagerie médicale. J Radiol 87:275–283CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Malmed AS, Love L, Jeffrey RB (1992) Medullary CT enhancement in acute renal artery occlusion. J Comput Assist Tomogr 16:107–109CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Marcos HB, Noone TC, Semelka RC (1998) MRI evaluation of acute renal trauma. J Magn Reson 8:989–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mayor B, Gudinchet F, Wicky S, Reinberg O, Schnyder P (1995) Imaging evaluation of blunt renal trauma in children: diagnostic accuracy of intravenous pyelography and ultrasonography. Pediatr Radiol 25:214–218CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. McAleer IM, Kaplan GW, LoSasso BE (2002) Congenital urinary tract anomalies in pediatric renal trauma patients. J Urol 68:1808–1810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McKenney KL, Nunet DB Jr, McKenney MG (1998) Sonography as the primary screening technique for blunt abdominal trauma: experience with 899 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 170:979–985CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Merchant WC 3rd, Gibbons MD, Gonzales ET Jr (1984) Trauma to the bladder neck, trigone and vagina in children. J Urol 131:747–750CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Moore EE, Shackford SR, Pachter HL et al (1989) Organ injury scaling: spleen, liver, and kidney. J Trauma 29:1664–1666CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Nguyen MM, Das S (2002) Pediatric renal trauma. Urology 59:762–766CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Perez-Brayfield MR, Gatti JM, Smith EA et al (2002) Blunt traumatic hematuria in children: is a simplified algorithm justified? J Urol 167:2543–2546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pichler R, Fritsch H, Skradski V et al (2012) Diagnosis and management of pediatric urethral injuries. Urol Int 89:136–142CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Pietrera P, Badachi Y, Liard A, Dacher JN (2001) Les ultrasons dans l’évaluation initiale des lesions rénales post traumatiques chez l’enfant. J Radiol 82:833–838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Quagliano PV, Delair SM, Malhotra AK (2006) Diagnosis of blunt bladder injury: a prospective comparative study of computed tomography cystography and conventional retrograde cystography. J Trauma 61:410–421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Reda EF, Lebowitz RL (1986) Traumatic ureteropelvic junction disruption in the child. Pediatr Radiol 16:164–166CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Reese JN, Fox JA, Cannon GM Jr, Ost MC (2014) Timing and predictors for urinary drainage in children with expectantly managed garde IV renal trauma. J Urol 192:512–517CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Riccabona M, Avni F, Dacher JN et al (2010) ESPR uroradiology task force and ESUR paediatric working group: Imaging and procedural recommendations in paediatric uroradiology, Part III. Minutes of the ESPR uroradiology task force mini-symposium on intravenous urography, uro-CT and MR-urography in childhood. Pediatr Radiol 40:1315–1320CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Riccabona M, Avni F, Dacher JN et al (2011) ESPR uroradiology task force and ESUR paediatric working group: imaging recommendations in paediatric uroradiology, part IV Minutes of the ESPR uroradiology task force mini-symposium on imaging in childhood renal hypertension and imaging of renal trauma in children. Pediatr Radiol 41:939–944CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Riccabona M, Vivier PH, Ntoulia A et al (2014) ESPR uroradiology task force imaging recommendations in paediatric uroradiology, part VII: standardised terminology, impact of existing recommendations, and update on contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the paediatric urogenital tract. Pediatr Radiol 44:1478–1484CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Ricabbona M, Darge K, Lobo ML et al (2015) ESPR uroradiology taskforce – imaging recommendations in paediatric uroradiology, part VIII: retrograde urethrography, imaging disorder of sexual development and imaging childhood testicular torsion. Pediatr Radiol 45:2023–2028CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Richards JR, Knopf NA, Wang L, McGahan JP (2002) Blunt abdominal trauma in children: evaluation with emergency US. Radiology 222:749–754CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Rogers CG, Knight V, MacUra KJ et al (2004) High-grade renal injuries in children – is conservative management possible? Urology 64:574–579CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Santucci RA, McAninch JW, Safir M et al (2001) Validation of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma organ injury severity scale for the kidney. J Trauma 50:195–200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Shariat SF, Roehrborn CG, Karakiewicz PI et al (2007) Evidence-based validation of the predictive value of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma kidney injury scale. J Trauma 62:933–939CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Sivit CJ, Cutting JP, Eichelberger MR (1995) CT diagnosis and localization of rupture of the bladder in children with blunt abdominal trauma: significance of contrast material extravasation in the pelvis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 164:1243–1246CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Sokolove PE, Kuppermann N, Holmes JF (2005) Association between the seat belt sign and intraabdominal injury in children with blunt torso trauma. Acad Emerg Med 12:808–813CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Stuhlfaut JW, Anderson SW, Soto JA (2007) Blunt abdominal trauma: current imaging techniques and CT findings in patients with solid organ, bowel and mesenteric injury. Semin Ultrasound CT MRI 28:115–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tasian GE, Aaronson DS, McAninch JW (2010) Evaluation of renal function after major renal injury: correlation with the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma injury scale. J Urol 183:196–200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Tarman GJ, Kaplan GW, Lerman SL, McAleer IM, Losasso BE (2002) Lower genitourinary injury and pelvic fractures in pediatric patients. Urology 59:123–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Thorelius L (2007) Emergency real-time contrast-enhanced sonography for detection of solid organ injuries. Eur Radiol 17:F107–F111CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Umbreit EC, Routh JC, Husmann DA (2009) Nonoperative management of nonvascular grade IV blunt renal trauma in children: meta-analysis and systematic review. Urology 74:579–582CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Valentino M, Serra C, Zironi G et al (2006) Blunt abdominal trauma: emergency contrast-enhanced sonography for detection of solid organ injuries. AJR Am J Roentgenol 186:1361–1367CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Walcher F, Weinlich M, Conrad G et al (2006) Prehospital ultrasound imaging improves management of abdominal trauma. Br J Surg 93:238–242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Wessel LM, Scholz S, Jester I et al (2000) Management of kidney injuries in children with blunt abdominal trauma. J Pediatr Surg 35:1326–1330CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Luisa Lobo
    • 1
  • Jean-Nicolas Dacher
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity Hospital of Santa Maria, HSM-CHLNLisboaPortugal
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyUniversity Hospital of Rouen 1RouenFrance

Personalised recommendations