Advertisement

Neoplasms of the Genitourinary System

  • Eline Deurloo
  • Hervé Brisse
  • Anne Smets
Chapter
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Nephroblastoma or Wilms’ tumor (WT) is the most common renal neoplasm in children accounting for 90 % of pediatric renal tumors (Pastore et al. 2006). It is a tumor with a good prognosis and with well-established treatment strategies. Other rare malignant renal tumors, such as clear cell sarcoma and rhabdoid tumor of the kidney, have a poor prognosis despite aggressive treatment. Renal cell carcinoma occurs in older children, while mesoblastic nephroma is the most frequent renal tumor in the neonate. Hematological malignancies, the most frequent neoplasms in children, may also involve the kidney, most often as part of a multi-organ involvement. Renal infections and malformations are much more common in children than renal tumors and may show a pseudotumoral pattern mimicking a renal tumor. In all cases, close collaboration among radiologists, pediatricians, and pathologists is essential so as to avoid diagnostic pitfalls due to atypical presentations.

List of Abbreviations

ADC

Apparent diffusion coefficient

ALK

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase

A-RMS

Alveolar-type rhabdomyosarcoma

BP RMS

Bladder-prostate rhabdomyosarcoma

CCSK

Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

CDS

Color Doppler sonography

CMN

Congenital mesoblastic nephroma

CPDN

Cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma

CXR

Chest X-ray

DWI

Diffusion weighted imaging

EFS

Event-free survival

EpSSG

European paediatric Soft tissue Sarcoma Study Group

E-RMS

Embryonal-type rhabdomyosarcoma

FDG-PET

Fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

GU

Genitourinary

ILNRs

Intralobar nephrogenic rests

IVC

Inferior vena cava

MA

Metanephric adenoma

MRTK

Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney

NRs

Nephrogenic rests

NSS

Nephron-sparing surgery

NWTSG

North American National Wilms’ Tumor Study Group

PLNRs

Perilobar nephrogenic rests

pPNET

Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor

PT RMS

Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma

RCC

Renal cell carcinoma

RMS

Rhabdomyosarcoma

RTSG

Renal Tumour Study Group

SIOP

International Society of Pediatric Oncology

US

Ultrasound

VOD

Veno-occlusive disease

WT

Wilms’ Tumor

References

  1. Agrawal R, Jafri SZ, Gibson DP, Bis KG, Ali R (1995) Juxtaglomerular cell tumor: MR findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 19(1):140–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrons GA, Wagner BJ, Davidson AJ, Suarez ES (1995) Multilocular cystic renal tumor in children: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics Rev Publ Radiol Soc N Am Inc 15(3):653–669. doi: 10.1148/radiographics.15.3.7624570 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed HU, Arya M, Muneer A, Mushtaq I, Sebire NJ (2010) Testicular and paratesticular tumours in the prepubertal population. Lancet Oncol 11(5):476–483. doi: 10.1016/s1470-2045(10)70012-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akbar SA, Sayyed TA, Jafri SZ, Hasteh F, Neill JS (2003) Multimodality imaging of paratesticular neoplasms and their rare mimics. Radiographics Rev Publ Radiol Soc N Am Inc 23(6):1461–1476. doi: 10.1148/rg.236025174 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akbarzadeh A, Khorramirouz R, Saadat S, Hiradfar M, Kajbafzadeh AM (2014) Congenital urethral polyps in girls: as a differential diagnosis of interlabial masses. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 27(6):330–334. doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2014.01.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Alexander N, Lane S, Hitchcock R (2012) What is the evidence for radical surgery in the management of localized embryonal bladder/prostate rhabdomyosarcoma? Pediatr Blood Cancer 58(6):833–835. doi: 10.1002/pbc.24087 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Alvarez O, Rodriguez MM, Jordan L, Sarnaik S (2015) Renal medullary carcinoma and sickle cell trait: a systematic review. Pediatr Blood Cancer 62(10):1694–1699. doi: 10.1002/pbc.25592 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Amar AM, Tomlinson G, Green DM, Breslow NE, de Alarcon PA (2001) Clinical presentation of rhabdoid tumors of the kidney. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 23(2):105–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Annam A, Munden MM, Mehollin-Ray AR, Schady D, Browne LP (2015) Extratesticular masses in children: taking ultrasound beyond paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma. Pediatr Radiol 45(9):1382–1391. doi: 10.1007/s00247-015-3316-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Argani P, Beckwith JB (2000) Metanephric stromal tumor: report of 31 cases of a distinctive pediatric renal neoplasm. Am J Surg Pathol 24(7):917–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Argani P, Lae M, Ballard ET, Amin M, Manivel C, Hutchinson B, Reuter VE, Ladanyi M (2006) Translocation carcinomas of the kidney after chemotherapy in childhood. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 24(10):1529–1534. doi: 10.1200/jco.2005.04.4693 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Argani P, Perlman EJ, Breslow NE, Browning NG, Green DM, D’Angio GJ, Beckwith JB (2000) Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney: a review of 351 cases from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group Pathology Center. Am J Surg Pathol 24(1):4–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Aronson DC, Slaar A, Heinen RC, de Kraker J, Heij HA (2011) Long-term outcome of bilateral Wilms tumors (BWT). Pediatr Blood Cancer 56(7):1110–1113. doi: 10.1002/pbc.22881 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Arroyo MR, Green DM, Perlman EJ, Beckwith JB, Argani P (2001) The spectrum of metanephric adenofibroma and related lesions: clinicopathologic study of 25 cases from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group Pathology Center. Am J Surg Pathol 25(4):433–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ashley RA, Figueroa TE (2010) Gross hematuria in a 3-year-old girl caused by a large isolated bladder hemangioma. Urology 76(4):952–954. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2010.03.062 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Avni EF, Szliwowski H, Spehl M, Lelong B, Baudain P, Struyven J (1984) Renal involvement in tuberous sclerosis. Ann Radiol 27(2–3):207–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bahubeshi A, Bal N, Rio Frio T, Hamel N, Pouchet C, Yilmaz A, Bouron-Dal Soglio D, Williams GM, Tischkowitz M, Priest JR, Foulkes WD (2010) Germline DICER1 mutations and familial cystic nephroma. J Med Genet 47(12):863–866. doi: 10.1136/jmg.2010.081216 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Barese CN, Podestá M, Litvak E, Villa M, Rivas EM (2004) Recurrent eosinophilic cystitis in a child with chronic granulomatous disease. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 26(3):2009–2012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bayindir P, Guillerman RP, Hicks MJ, Chintagumpala MM (2009) Cellular mesoblastic nephroma (infantile renal fibrosarcoma): institutional review of the clinical, diagnostic imaging, and pathologic features of a distinctive neoplasm of infancy. Pediatr Radiol 39(10):1066–1074. doi: 10.1007/s00247-009-1348-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Beckwith JB (1993) Precursor lesions of Wilms tumor: clinical and biological implications. Med Pediatr Oncol 21(3):158–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Beckwith JB (1998) Nephrogenic rests and the pathogenesis of Wilms tumor: developmental and clinical considerations. Am J Med Genet 79(4):268–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Beckwith JB, Kiviat NB, Bonadio JF (1990) Nephrogenic rests, nephroblastomatosis, and the pathogenesis of Wilms’ tumor. Pediatr Pathol Affiliated Int Paediatr Pathol Assoc 10(1–2):1–36Google Scholar
  23. Beilan JA, Lawton A, Hajdenberg J, Rosser CJ (2013) Pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder: a systematic review of the contemporary literature. BMC Urol 13:22. doi: 10.1186/1471-2490-13-22 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Bergeron C, Iliescu C, Thiesse P, Bouvier R, Dijoud F, Ranchere-Vince D, Basset T, Chappuis JP, Buclon M, Frappaz D, Brunat-Mentigny M, Philip T (2001) Does nephroblastomatosis influence the natural history and relapse rate in Wilms’ tumour? A single centre experience over 11 years. Eur J Cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 37(3):385–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bisogno G, Ferrari A (2012) Soft tissue sarcomas. In: Stevens MCGCH, Biondi A (eds) Cancer in children – clinical management. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 274–292Google Scholar
  26. Bliek J, Gicquel C, Maas S, Gaston V, Le Bouc Y, Mannens M (2004) Epigenotyping as a tool for the prediction of tumor risk and tumor type in patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). J Pediatr 145(6):796–799. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2004.08.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bolande RP, Brough AJ, Izant RJ Jr (1967) Congenital mesoblastic nephroma of infancy. A report of eight cases and the relationship to Wilms’ tumor. Pediatrics 40(2):272–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Breslow N, Olshan A, Beckwith JB, Green DM (1993) Epidemiology of Wilms tumor. Med Pediatr Oncol 21(3):172–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Breslow N, Olshan A, Beckwith JB, Moksness J, Feigl P, Green D (1994) Ethnic variation in the incidence, diagnosis, prognosis, and follow-up of children with Wilms’ tumor. J Natl Cancer Inst 86(1):49–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Breslow NE, Olson J, Moksness J, Beckwith JB, Grundy P (1996) Familial Wilms’ tumor: a descriptive study. Med Pediatr Oncol 27(5):398–403. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1096-911x(199611)27:5<398::aid-mpo2>3.0.co;2-h CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Brisse H (2005) The radiologic contribution to surgical aspects of kidney tumors in children. JBR-BTR organe de la Societe royale belge de radiologie (SRBR) orgaan van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Radiologie (KBVR) 88(5):250–253Google Scholar
  32. Brisse HJ, Schleiermacher G, Sarnacki S, Helfre S, Philippe-Chomette P, Boccon-Gibod L, Peuchmaur M, Mosseri V, Aigrain Y, Neuenschwander S (2008a) Preoperative Wilms tumor rupture: a retrospective study of 57 patients. Cancer 113(1):202–213. doi: 10.1002/cncr.23535 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Brisse HJ, Smets AM, Kaste SC, Owens CM (2008b) Imaging in unilateral Wilms tumour. Pediatr Radiol 38(1):18–29. doi: 10.1007/s00247-007-0677-9 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Brucker BE, Ernst L, Meadows A, Zderic S (2006) A second leiomyosarcoma in the urinary bladder of a child with a history of retinoblastoma 12 years following partial cystectomy. Pediatr Blood Cancer 46(7):811–814. doi: 10.1002/pbc.20506 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Byerly D, Coley B, Ruymann F (2006) Perirenal hemorrhage as first presentation of Wilms tumor. Pediatr Radiol 36(7):714–717. doi: 10.1007/s00247-006-0168-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Casper KA, Donnelly LF, Chen B, Bissler JJ (2002) Tuberous sclerosis complex: renal imaging findings. Radiology 225(2):451–456. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2252011584 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cesaro S, Spiller M, Sartori MT, Alaggio R, Peruzzo M, Saggiorato G, Bisogno G (2011) Veno-occlusive disease in pediatric patients affected by Wilms tumor. Pediatr Blood Cancer 57(2):258–261. doi: 10.1002/pbc.22841 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Chami R, Yin M, Marrano P, Teerapakpinyo C, Shuangshoti S, Thorner PS (2015) BRAF mutations in pediatric metanephric tumors. Hum Pathol 46(8):1153–1161. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2015.03.019 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Chan HS, Cheng MY, Mancer K, Payton D, Weitzman SS, Kotecha P, Daneman A (1987) Congenital mesoblastic nephroma: a clinicoradiologic study of 17 cases representing the pathologic spectrum of the disease. J Pediatr 111(1):64–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chang CY, Chiou TJ, Hsieh YL, Cheng SN (2003) Leukemic infiltration of the urinary bladder presenting as uncontrollable gross hematuria in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 25(9):735–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Charlton J, Williams RD, Sebire NJ, Popov S, Vujanic G, Chagtai T, Alcaide-German M, Morris T, Butcher LM, Guilhamon P, Beck S, Pritchard-Jones K (2015) Comparative methylome analysis identifies new tumour subtypes and biomarkers for transformation of nephrogenic rests into Wilms tumour. Genome Medicine 7(1):11. doi: 10.1186/s13073-015-0136-4 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Chen H, Niu ZB, Yang Y (2012) Bladder leiomyoma in a 6-year-old boy. Urology 79(2):434–436. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2011.06.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Chepuri NB, Strouse PJ, Yanik GA (2003) CT of renal lymphoma in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol 180(2):429–431. doi: 10.2214/ajr.180.2.1800429 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Choueiri TK, Cheville J, Palescandolo E, Fay AP, Kantoff PW, Atkins MB, McKenney JK, Brown V, Lampron ME, Zhou M, Hirsch MS, Signoretti S (2012) BRAF mutations in metanephric adenoma of the kidney. Eur Urol 62(5):917–922. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2012.05.051 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Christmann D, Becmeur F, Marcellin L, Dhaoui R, Roy E, Sauvage P, Walter JP (1990) Mesoblastic nephroma presenting as a haemorrhagic cyst. Pediatr Radiol 20(7):553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Chung CJ, Lorenzo R, Rayder S, Schemankewitz E, Guy CD, Cutting J, Munden M (1995) Rhabdoid tumors of the kidney in children: CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 164(3):697–700. doi: 10.2214/ajr.164.3.7863897 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Cooper WN, Luharia A, Evans GA, Raza H, Haire AC, Grundy R, Bowdin SC, Riccio A, Sebastio G, Bliek J, Schofield PN, Reik W, Macdonald F, Maher ER (2005) Molecular subtypes and phenotypic expression of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet EJHG 13(9):1025–1032. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201463 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Coppes MJ, Arnold M, Beckwith JB, Ritchey ML, D’Angio GJ, Green DM, Breslow NE (1999) Factors affecting the risk of contralateral Wilms tumor development: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. Cancer 85(7):1616–1625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Cost NG, Cost CR, Geller JI, Cost NG, Cost CR, Geller JI, Defoor WR Jr (2014a) Adolescent urologic oncology: current issues and future directions. Urol Oncol 32(2):59–69. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2012.08.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Cost NG, Sawicz-Birkowska K, Kajbafzadeh AM, Tourchi A, Parigi GB, Guillen G, DeFoor WR Jr, Apoznanski W (2014b) A comparison of renal function outcomes after nephron-sparing surgery and radical nephrectomy for nonsyndromic unilateral Wilms tumor. Urology 83(6):1388–1393. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2014.01.051 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Cox SG, Kilborn T, Pillay K, Davidson A, Millar AJ (2014) Magnetic resonance imaging versus histopathology in Wilms tumor and nephroblastomatosis: 3 examples of noncorrelation. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 36(2):e81–e84. doi: 10.1097/MPH.0b013e318290c60d CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Cozzi DA, Zani A (2006) Nephron-sparing surgery in children with primary renal tumor: indications and results. Semin Pediatr Surg 15(1):3–9. doi: 10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2005.11.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Daskas N, Argyropoulou M, Pavlou M, Andronikou S (2002) Congenital mesoblastic nephroma associated with polyhydramnios and hypercalcemia. Pediatr Nephrol (Berlin, Germany) 17(3):187–189. doi: 10.1007/s00467-001-0779-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Davidson AJ, Choyke PL, Hartman DS, Davis CJ Jr (1995) Renal medullary carcinoma associated with sickle cell trait: radiologic findings. Radiology 195(1):83–85. doi: 10.1148/radiology.195.1.7892499 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Davis CJ Jr, Barton JH, Sesterhenn IA, Mostofi FK (1995) Metanephric adenoma. Clinicopathological study of fifty patients. Am J Surg Pathol 19(10):1101–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Daw NC, Kauffman WM, Bodner SM, Pratt CB, Hoffer FA (2002) Patterns of abdominal relapse and role of sonography in Wilms tumor. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 19(2):107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. de Kraker J, Graf N, Pritchard-Jones K, Pein F (2001) Nephroblastoma clinical trial and study SIOP 2001, Protocol. SIOP RTSGGoogle Scholar
  58. de Kraker J, Jones KP (2005) Treatment of Wilms tumor: an international perspective. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 23(13):3156–3157. doi: 10.1200/jco.2005.05.150; author reply 3157–3158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. de Kraker J, Voute PA, Lemerle J, Tournade MF, Perry HJ (1982) Preoperative chemotherapy in Wilms’ tumour. Results of clinical trials and studies on nephroblastomas conducted by the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP). Prog Clin Biol Res 100:131–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. De Waele L, Lagae L, Mekahli D (2015) Tuberous sclerosis complex: the past and the future. Pediatr Nephrol (Berlin, Germany) 30(10):1771–1780. doi: 10.1007/s00467-014-3027-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. DeBaun MR, Tucker MA (1998) Risk of cancer during the first four years of life in children from The Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome Registry. J Pediatr 132(3 Pt 1):398–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Defoor W, Minevich E, Sheldon C (2002) Unusual bladder masses in children. Urology 60(5):911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Dhall D, Al-Ahmadie HA, Dhall G, Shen-Schwarz S, Tickoo SK (2007) Pediatric renal cell carcinoma with oncocytoid features occurring in a child after chemotherapy for cardiac leiomyosarcoma. Urology 70(1):178.e113. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2007.03.055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Di Carlo D, Ferrari A, Perruccio K, D’Angelo P, Fagnani AM, Cecchetto G, Bisogno G (2014) Management and follow-up of urothelial neoplasms of the bladder in children: a report from the TREP project. Pediatr Blood Cancer 62:1000–1003. doi: 10.1002/pbc.25380 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Doerfler O, Reittner P, Groell R, Ratscheck M, Trummer H, Szolar D (2001) Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney: CT findings. Pediatr Radiol 31(2):117–119. doi: 10.1007/s002470000392 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Dome JS, Fernandez CV, Mullen EA, Kalapurakal JA, Geller JI, Huff V, Gratias EJ, Dix DB, Ehrlich PF, Khanna G, Malogolowkin MH, Anderson JR, Naranjo A, Perlman EJ (2013) Children’s Oncology Group’s 2013 blueprint for research: renal tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer 60(6):994–1000. doi: 10.1002/pbc.24419 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Dome JS, Graf N, Geller JI, Fernandez CV, Mullen EA, Spreafico F, Van den Heuvel-Eibrink M, Pritchard-Jones K (2015) Advances in Wilms tumor treatment and biology: progress through International Collaboration. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 33(27):2999–3007. doi: 10.1200/jco.2015.62.1888 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Dome JS, Liu T, Krasin M, Lott L, Shearer P, Daw NC, Billups CA, Wilimas JA (2002) Improved survival for patients with recurrent Wilms tumor: the experience at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 24(3):192–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Downey RT, Dillman JR, Ladino-Torres MF, McHugh JB, Ehrlich PF, Strouse PJ (2012) CT and MRI appearances and radiologic staging of pediatric renal cell carcinoma. Pediatr Radiol 42(4):410–417. doi: 10.1007/s00247-011-2319-5; quiz 513–414CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Dykes EH, Marwaha RK, Dicks-Mireaux C, Sams V, Risdon RA, Duffy PG, Ransley PG, Pritchard J (1991) Risks and benefits of percutaneous biopsy and primary chemotherapy in advanced Wilms’ tumour. J Pediatr Surg 26(5):610–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ehrlich PF, Ferrer FA, Ritchey ML, Anderson JR, Green DM, Grundy PE, Dome JS, Kalapurakal JA, Perlman EJ, Shamberger RC (2009) Hepatic metastasis at diagnosis in patients with Wilms tumor is not an independent adverse prognostic factor for stage IV Wilms tumor: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group/National Wilms Tumor Study Group. Ann Surg 250(4):642–648. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181b76f20 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. England RJ, Haider N, Vujanic GM, Kelsey A, Stiller CA, Pritchard-Jones K, Powis M (2011) Mesoblastic nephroma: a report of the United Kingdom Children’s Cancer and Leukaemia Group (CCLG). Pediatr Blood Cancer 56(5):744–748. doi: 10.1002/pbc.22871 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Esfahani SA, Montaser-Kouhsari L, Saeedi P, Sadeghi Z, Kajbafzadeh AM (2009) An antenatally diagnosed rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder treated without extensive surgery. Nat Rev Urol 6(8):449–453. doi: 10.1038/nrurol.2009.99 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Farb JB, Lee EY (2006) Clinical image. Infiltrative renal lymphangioma in a pediatric patient. Pediatr Radiol 36(7):718. doi: 10.1007/s00247-005-0108-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Fernandes ET, Parham DM, Ribeiro RC, Douglass EC, Kumar AP, Wilimas J (1988) Teratoid Wilms’ tumor: the St Jude experience. J Pediatr Surg 23(12):1131–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Fernandez-Pineda I, Spunt SL, Parida L, Krasin MJ, Davidoff AM, Rao BN (2011) Vaginal tumors in childhood: the experience of St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. J Pediatr Surg 46(11):2071–2075. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2011.05.003 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Ferrari A, Bisogno G, Macaluso A, Casanova M, D’Angelo P, Pierani P, Zanetti I, Alaggio R, Cecchetto G, Carli M (2007) Soft-tissue sarcomas in children and adolescents with neurofibromatosis type 1. Cancer 109(7):1406–1412. doi: 10.1002/cncr.22533 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Ferraro EM, Klein SA, Fakhry J, Weingarten MJ, Rose JS (1986) Hypercalcemia in association with mesoblastic nephroma: report of a case and review of the literature. Pediatr Radiol 16(6):516–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Filiatrault D, Hoyoux C, Benoit P, Garel L, Esseltine D (1987) Renal metastases from neuroblastoma. Report of two cases. Pediatr Radiol 17(2):137–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Fleitz JM, Wootton-Gorges SL, Wyatt-Ashmead J, McGavran L, Koyle M, West DC, Kurzrock EA, Martin KW, Odom LF (2003) Renal cell carcinoma in long-term survivors of advanced stage neuroblastoma in early childhood. Pediatr Radiol 33(8):540–545. doi: 10.1007/s00247-003-0913-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Fuchs J, Szavay P, Seitz G, Handgretinger R, Schafer JF, Warmann SW (2011) Nephron sparing surgery for synchronous bilateral nephroblastoma involving the renal hilus. J Urol 186(4):1430–1436. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2011.05.068 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Fuller TW, Dangle P, Reese JN, Ristau BT, Lyon TD, Jaffe R, Stephany HA (2015) Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the bladder masquerading as eosinophilic cystitis: case report and review of the literature. Urology 85(4):921–923. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2015.01.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Furtwaengler R, Reinhard H, Leuschner I, Schenk JP, Goebel U, Claviez A, Kulozik A, Zoubek A, von Schweinitz D, Graf N (2006) Mesoblastic nephroma – a report from the Gesellschaft fur Padiatrische Onkologie und Hamatologie (GPOH). Cancer 106(10):2275–2283. doi: 10.1002/cncr.21836 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Furtwangler R, Schmolze M, Graber S, Leuschner I, Amann G, Schenk JP, Niggli F, Kager L, von Schweinitz D, Graf N (2014) Pretreatment for bilateral nephroblastomatosis is an independent risk factor for progressive disease in patients with stage V nephroblastoma. Klin Padiatr 226(3):175–181. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1371840 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Garel L, Robitaille P, Dubois J, Russo P (1993) Pediatric case of the day. Reninoma of the left kidney. Radiographics Rev Publ Radiol Soc N Am Inc 13(2):477–479. doi: 10.1148/radiographics.13.2.8460232 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Geller JI, Ehrlich PF, Cost NG, Khanna G, Mullen EA, Gratias EJ, Naranjo A, Dome JS, Perlman EJ (2015) Characterization of adolescent and pediatric renal cell carcinoma: A report from the Children’s Oncology Group study AREN03B2. Cancer 121(14):2457–2464. doi: 10.1002/cncr.29368 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Godzinski J, Weirich A, Tournade MF, Gauthier F, Buerger D, Moorman-Voestermans CG, de Kraker J, Voute P, Ludwig R, Sawicz-Birkowska K, Vujanic G, Ducourtieux M (2001) Primary nephrectomy for emergency: a rare event in the International Society of Paediatric Oncology Nephroblastoma Trial and Study no. 9. Eur J Pediatr Surg Off J Aust Assoc Pediatr Surg [et al] Zeitschrift fur Kinderchirurgie 11(1):36–39Google Scholar
  88. Gooskens SL, Furtwangler R, Vujanic GM, Dome JS, Graf N, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM (2012) Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney: a review. Eur J Cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 48(14):2219–2226. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2012.04.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Goske MJ, Mitchell C, Reslan WA (1999) Imaging of patients with Wilms’ tumor. Semin Urol Oncol 17(1):11–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Gow KW, Roberts IF, Jamieson DH, Bray H, Magee JF, Murphy JJ (2000) Local staging of Wilms’ tumor – computerized tomography correlation with histological findings. J Pediatr Surg 35(5):677–679. doi: 10.1053/jpsu.2000.5941 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Goyal S, Puri A, Mishra K, Aggarwal SK, Kumar M, Sonaker P (2014) Endodermal sinus tumor of vagina posing a diagnostic challenge and managed by chemotherapy and novel posterior sagittal surgical approach: lessons learned. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 40(2):632–636. doi: 10.1111/jog.12182 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Graf N, van Tinteren H, Bergeron C, Pein F, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, Sandstedt B, Schenk JP, Godzinski J, Oldenburger F, Furtwangler R, de Kraker J (2012) Characteristics and outcome of stage II and III non-anaplastic Wilms’ tumour treated according to the SIOP trial and study 93–01. Eur J Cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 48(17):3240–3248. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2012.06.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Gratias EJ, Jennings LJ, Anderson JR, Dome JS, Grundy P, Perlman EJ (2013) Gain of 1q is associated with inferior event-free and overall survival in patients with favorable histology Wilms tumor: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Cancer 119(21):3887–3894. doi: 10.1002/cncr.28239 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Green DM, Cotton CA, Malogolowkin M, Breslow NE, Perlman E, Miser J, Ritchey ML, Thomas PR, Grundy PE, D’Angio GJ, Beckwith JB, Shamberger RC, Haase GM, Donaldson M, Weetman R, Coppes MJ, Shearer P, Coccia P, Kletzel M, Macklis R, Tomlinson G, Huff V, Newbury R, Weeks D (2007) Treatment of Wilms tumor relapsing after initial treatment with vincristine and actinomycin D: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 48(5):493–499. doi: 10.1002/pbc.20822 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Grundy P, Breslow N, Green DM, Sharples K, Evans A, D’Angio GJ (1989) Prognostic factors for children with recurrent Wilms’ tumor: results from the Second and Third National Wilms’ Tumor Study. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 7(5):638–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Grundy PE, Breslow NE, Li S, Perlman E, Beckwith JB, Ritchey ML, Shamberger RC, Haase GM, D’Angio GJ, Donaldson M, Coppes MJ, Malogolowkin M, Shearer P, Thomas PR, Macklis R, Tomlinson G, Huff V, Green DM (2005) Loss of heterozygosity for chromosomes 1p and 16q is an adverse prognostic factor in favorable-histology Wilms tumor: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 23(29):7312–7321. doi: 10.1200/jco.2005.01.2799 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Grundy PE, Green DM, Coppes MJ (2002) Renal tumors. In: Pizzo PA (ed) Principles and practice of pediatric oncology. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 865–893Google Scholar
  98. Grundy PE, Green DM, Dirks AC, Berendt AE, Breslow NE, Anderson JR, Dome JS (2012) Clinical significance of pulmonary nodules detected by CT and Not CXR in patients treated for favorable histology Wilms tumor on national Wilms tumor studies-4 and −5: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 59(4):631–635. doi: 10.1002/pbc.24123 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Guo K, Tian R, Liu L, Du C, Li F, Wang H (2015) Adenomatoid tumor of the tunica albuginea in a Boy: a case report and literature review. Case Rep Urol 2015:935193. doi: 10.1155/2015/935193 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Gururangan S, Wilimas JA, Fletcher BD (1994) Bone metastases in Wilms’ tumor – report of three cases and review of literature. Pediatr Radiol 24(2):85–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Gylys-Morin V, Hoffer FA, Kozakewich H, Shamberger RC (1993) Wilms tumor and nephroblastomatosis: imaging characteristics at gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology 188(2):517–521. doi: 10.1148/radiology.188.2.8392214 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Hacker HW, Winiker H, Caduff J, Schwoebel MG (2009) Inflammatory tumour of the prostate in a 4-year-old boy. J Pediatr Urol 5(6):516–518. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2009.03.023 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Haie-Meder C, Mazeron R, Martelli H, Oberlin O (2013) Brachytherapy role in pediatric rhabdomyosarcomas. Cancer radiotherapie Journal de la Societe francaise de radiotherapie oncologique 17(2):155–158. doi: 10.1016/j.canrad.2012.12.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Hales PW, Olsen OE, Sebire NJ, Pritchard-Jones K, Clark CA (2015) A multi-Gaussian model for apparent diffusion coefficient histogram analysis of Wilms’ tumour subtype and response to chemotherapy. NMR Biomed 28(8):948–957. doi: 10.1002/nbm.3337 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Hamilton TE, Ritchey ML, Haase GM, Argani P, Peterson SM, Anderson JR, Green DM, Shamberger RC (2011) The management of synchronous bilateral Wilms tumor: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. Ann Surg 253(5):1004–1010. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e31821266a0 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Han TI, Kim MJ, Yoon HK, Chung JY, Choeh K (2001) Rhabdoid tumour of the kidney: imaging findings. Pediatr Radiol 31(4):233–237. doi: 10.1007/s002470000417 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Harel M, Ferrer FA, Shapiro LH, Makari JH (2015) Future directions in risk stratification and therapy for advanced pediatric genitourinary rhabdomyosarcoma. Urol Oncol 34:103–115. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2015.09.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Hartman DS, Lesar MS, Madewell JE, Lichtenstein JE, Davis CJ Jr (1981) Mesoblastic nephroma: radiologic-pathologic correlation of 20 cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol 136(1):69–74. doi: 10.2214/ajr.136.1.69 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Heidenreich A, Zirbes TK, Wolter S, Engelmann UH (1999) Nephrogenic adenoma: a rare bladder tumor in children. Eur Urol 36(4):348–353.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000019998 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Henno S, Loeuillet L, Henry C, D’Herve D, Azzis O, Ferrer J, Poulain P, Babut JM, Merlio JP, Jouan H, Dubus P (2003) Cellular mesoblastic nephroma: morphologic, cytogenetic and molecular links with congenital fibrosarcoma. Pathol Res Pract 199(1):35–40. doi: 10.1078/0344-0338-00350 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Herman TE, Shackelford GD, McAlister WH (1997) Pseudotumoral sarcoid granulomatous nephritis in a child: case presentation with sonographic and CT findings. Pediatr Radiol 27(9):752–754. doi: 10.1007/s002470050218 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Hugosson C, Mahr MA, Sabbah R (1997) Primary unilateral renal lymphoblastic lymphoma. Pediatr Radiol 27(1):23–25. doi: 10.1007/s002470050056 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Huppmann AR, Pawel BR (2011) Polyps and masses of the pediatric urinary bladder: a 21-year pathology review. Pediatr Dev Pathol Off J Soc Pediatr Pathol Paediatr Pathol Soc 14(6):438–444. doi: 10.2350/11-01-0958-oa.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Inoue M, Uchida K, Kohei O, Nashida Y, Deguchi T, Komada Y, Kusunoki M (2006) Teratoid Wilms’ tumor: a case report with literature review. J Pediatr Surg 41(10):1759–1763. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2006.05.045 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Irsutti M, Puget C, Baunin C, Duga I, Sarramon MF, Guitard J (2000) Mesoblastic nephroma: prenatal ultrasonographic and MRI features. Pediatr Radiol 30(3):147–150. doi: 10.1007/s002470050033 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Isaac J, Lowichik A, Cartwright P, Rohr R (2000) Inverted papilloma of the urinary bladder in children: case report and review of prognostic significance and biological potential behavior. J Pediatr Surg 35(10):1514–1516. doi: 10.1053/jpsu.2000.16429 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Isaacs H Jr (2008) Fetal and neonatal renal tumors. J Pediatr Surg 43(9):1587–1595. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2008.03.052 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Ito J, Shinohara N, Koyanagi T, Hanioka K (1998) Ossifying renal tumor of infancy: the first Japanese case with long-term follow-up. Pathol Int 48(2):151–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Jahn H, Nissen HM (1991) Haemangioma of the urinary tract: review of the literature. Br J Urol 68(2):113–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Jeon A, Cramer BC, Walsh E, Pushpanathan C (1999) A spectrum of segmental multicystic renal dysplasia. Pediatr Radiol 29(5):309–315. doi: 10.1007/s002470050595 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Karaosmanoglu AD, Onur MR, Shirkhoda A, Ozmen M, Hahn PF (2015) Unusual benign solid neoplasms of the kidney: cross-sectional imaging findings. Diagn Interven Radiol (Ankara, Turkey) 21(5):376–381. doi: 10.5152/dir.2015.14545 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Kelner M, Droulle P, Didier F, Hoeffel JC (2003) The vascular “ring” sign in mesoblastic nephroma: report of two cases. Pediatr Radiol 33(2):123–128. doi: 10.1007/s00247-002-0821-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Khanna G, Naranjo A, Hoffer F, Mullen E, Geller J, Gratias EJ, Ehrlich PF, Perlman EJ, Rosen N, Grundy P, Dome JS (2013) Detection of preoperative wilms tumor rupture with CT: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Radiology 266(2):610–617. doi: 10.1148/radiol.12120670 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Kieran K, Williams MA, McGregor LM, Dome JS, Krasin MJ, Davidoff AM (2014) Repeat nephron-sparing surgery for children with bilateral Wilms tumor. J Pediatr Surg 49(1):149–153. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2013.09.048 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Knezevich SR, Garnett MJ, Pysher TJ, Beckwith JB, Grundy PE, Sorensen PH (1998) ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusions and trisomy 11 establish a histogenetic link between mesoblastic nephroma and congenital fibrosarcoma. Cancer Res 58(22):5046–5048PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Kodet R, Fajstavr J, Kabelka Z, Koutecky J, Eckschlager T, Newton WA Jr (1991) Is fetal cellular rhabdomyoma an entity or a differentiated rhabdomyosarcoma? A study of patients with rhabdomyoma of the tongue and sarcoma of the tongue enrolled in the intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma studies I, II, and III. Cancer 67(11):2907–2913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Krasin MJ, Xiong X, Wu S, Merchant TE (2005) The effects of external beam irradiation on the growth of flat bones in children: modeling a dose-volume effect. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 62(5):1458–1463. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.01.024 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Kuo H, Cain MP (2004) Spontaneous bladder wall abscess in a child. Urology 63(4):778–779. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2003.12.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Lalwani N, Prasad SR, Vikram R, Katabathina V, Shanbhogue A, Restrepo C (2011) Pediatric and adult primary sarcomas of the kidney: a cross-sectional imaging review. Acta Radiol (Stockholm, Sweden: 1987) 52(4):448–457. doi: 10.1258/ar.2011.100376 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Lam JS, Hensle TW, Debelenko L, Granowetter L, Tennenbaum SY (2003) Organ-confined primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising from the kidney. J Pediatr Surg 38(4):619–621. doi: 10.1053/jpsu.2003.50135 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Lee EY (2007) CT imaging of mass-like renal lesions in children. Pediatr Radiol 37(9):896–907. doi: 10.1007/s00247-007-0548-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Lee SH, Choi YH, Kim WS, Cheon JE, Moon KC (2014) Ossifying renal tumor of infancy: findings at ultrasound, CT and MRI. Pediatr Radiol 44(5):625–628.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00247-013-2855-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Lobe TE, Wiener ES, Hays DM, Lawrence WH, Andrassy RJ, Johnston J, Wharam M, Webber B, Ragab A (1994) Neonatal rhabdomyosarcoma: the IRS experience. J Pediatr Surg 29(8):1167–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Lonergan GJ, Martinez-Leon MI, Agrons GA, Montemarano H, Suarez ES (1998) Nephrogenic rests, nephroblastomatosis, and associated lesions of the kidney. Radiographics Rev Publ Radiol Soc N Am Inc 18(4):947–968. doi: 10.1148/radiographics.18.4.9672980 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Lowe LH, Isuani BH, Heller RM, Stein SM, Johnson JE, Navarro OM, Hernanz-Schulman M (2000) Pediatric renal masses: Wilms tumor and beyond. Radiographics Rev Publ Radiol Soc N Am Inc 20(6):1585–1603. doi: 10.1148/radiographics.20.6.g00nv051585 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Luithle T, Szavay P, Furtwangler R, Graf N, Fuchs J (2007) Treatment of cystic nephroma and cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma--a report from the SIOP/GPOH study group. J Urol 177(1):294–296. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2006.09.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Maher ER, Neumann HP, Richard S (2011) von Hippel-Lindau disease: a clinical and scientific review. Eur J Hum Genet: EJHG 19(6):617–623. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2010.175 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Malogolowkin M, Cotton CA, Green DM, Breslow NE, Perlman E, Miser J, Ritchey ML, Thomas PR, Grundy PE, D’Angio GJ, Beckwith JB, Shamberger RC, Haase GM, Donaldson M, Weetman R, Coppes MJ, Shearer P, Coccia P, Kletzel M, Macklis R, Tomlinson G, Huff V, Newbury R, Weeks D (2008) Treatment of Wilms tumor relapsing after initial treatment with vincristine, actinomycin D, and doxorubicin. A report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 50(2):236–241. doi: 10.1002/pbc.21267 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Marietti S, Saenz N, Willert J, Holmes N (2013) Genitourinary rhabdomyosarcoma: unusual diagnosis presenting within hours of delivery. J Pediatr Urol 9(4):e139–e143. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2013.02.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Marsden HB, Lawler W, Kumar PM (1978) Bone metastasizing renal tumor of childhood: morphological and clinical features, and differences from Wilms’ tumor. Cancer 42(4):1922–1928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Marteinsson VT, Due J, Aagenaes I (1996) Focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis presenting as renal tumour in children. Case report with a review of the literature. Scand J Urol Nephrol 30(3):235–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Maschietto M, Williams RD, Chagtai T, Popov SD, Sebire NJ, Vujanic G, Perlman E, Anderson JR, Grundy P, Dome JS, Pritchard-Jones K (2014) TP53 mutational status is a potential marker for risk stratification in Wilms tumour with diffuse anaplasia. PLoS One 9(10):e109924. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109924 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. Matsunaga GS, Shanberg AM, Rajpoot D (2003) Prenatal ultrasonographic detection of bladder rhabdomyosarcoma. J Urol 169(4):1495–1496. doi: 10.1097/01.ju.0000053462.98574.f7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. McCarville MB, Hoffer FA, Howard SC, Goloubeva O, Kauffman WM (2001) Hepatic veno-occlusive disease in children undergoing bone-marrow transplantation: usefulness of sonographic findings. Pediatr Radiol 31(2):102–105. doi: 10.1007/s002470000373 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. McCarville MB, Lederman HM, Santana VM, Daw NC, Shochat SJ, Li CS, Kaufman RA (2006) Distinguishing benign from malignant pulmonary nodules with helical chest CT in children with malignant solid tumors. Radiology 239(2):514–520. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2392050631 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Medeiros LJ, Palmedo G, Krigman HR, Kovacs G, Beckwith JB (1999) Oncocytoid renal cell carcinoma after neuroblastoma: a report of four cases of a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Am J Surg Pathol 23(7):772–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Mong A, Bellah R (2006) Imaging the pediatric prostate. Radiol Clin North Am 44(5):749–756. doi: 10.1016/j.rcl.2006.07.007, ixCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Monsalve J, Kapur J, Malkin D, Babyn PS (2011) Imaging of cancer predisposition syndromes in children. Radiographics Rev Publ Radiol Soc N Am Inc 31(1):263–280. doi: 10.1148/rg.311105099 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Morgan E, Kidd JM (1978) Undifferentiated sarcoma of the kidney: a tumor of childhood with histopathologic and clinical characteristics distinct from Wilms’ tumor. Cancer 42(4):1916–1921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Murthi GV, Carachi R, Howatson A (2003) Congenital cystic mesoblastic nephroma. Pediatr Surg Int 19(1–2):109–111. doi: 10.1007/s00383-002-0833-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Mynarek M, Hussein K, Kreipe HH, Maecker-Kolhoff B (2014) Malignancies after pediatric kidney transplantation: more than PTLD? Pediatr Nephrol (Berlin, Germany) 29(9):1517–1528. doi: 10.1007/s00467-013-2622-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Nagahara A, Kawagoe M, Matsumoto F, Tohda A, Shimada K, Yasui M, Inoue M, Kawa K, Hamana K, Nakayama M (2006) Botryoid Wilms’ tumor of the renal pelvis extending into the bladder. Urology 67(4):845.e815. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2005.10.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Navarro O, Conolly B, Taylor G, Bagli DJ (1999) Metanephric adenoma of the kidney: a case report. Pediatr Radiol 29(2):100–103. doi: 10.1007/s002470050550 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Navoy JF, Royal SA, Vaid YN, Mroczek-Musulman EC (1995) Wilms tumor: unusual manifestations. Pediatr Radiol 25(Suppl 1):S76–S86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Ng YY, Healy JC, Vincent JM, Kingston JE, Armstrong P, Reznek RH (1994) The radiology of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in childhood: a review of 80 cases. Clin Radiol 49(9):594–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Norman G, Fayter D, Lewis-Light K, Chisholm J, McHugh K, Levine D, Jenney M, Mandeville H, Gatz S, Phillips B (2015) An emerging evidence base for PET-CT in the management of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: systematic review. BMJ Open 5(1):e006030. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006030 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. Oberlin O, Rey A, Lyden E, Bisogno G, Stevens MC, Meyer WH, Carli M, Anderson JR (2008) Prognostic factors in metastatic rhabdomyosarcomas: results of a pooled analysis from United States and European cooperative groups. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 26(14):2384–2389. doi: 10.1200/jco.2007.14.7207 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Ora I, van Tinteren H, Bergeron C, de Kraker J (2007) Progression of localised Wilms’ tumour during preoperative chemotherapy is an independent prognostic factor: a report from the SIOP 93–01 nephroblastoma trial and study. Eur J Cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 43(1):131–136. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2006.08.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Orbach D, Sarnacki S, Brisse HJ, Gauthier-Villars M, Jarreau PH, Tsatsaris V, Baruchel A, Zerah M, Seigneur E, Peuchmaur M, Doz F (2013) Neonatal cancer. Lancet Oncol 14(13):e609–e620.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70236-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Owens CM, Brisse HJ, Olsen OE, Begent J, Smets AM (2008) Bilateral disease and new trends in Wilms tumour. Pediatr Radiol 38(1):30–39. doi: 10.1007/s00247-007-0681-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Panuel M, Bourliere-Najean B, Gentet JC, Scheiner C, Delarue A, Faure F, Devred P (1992) Aggressive neuroblastoma with initial pulmonary metastases and kidney involvement simulating Wilms’ tumor. Eur J Radiol 14(3):201–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Pappo AS, Anderson JR, Crist WM, Wharam MD, Breitfeld PP, Hawkins D, Raney RB, Womer RB, Parham DM, Qualman SJ, Grier HE (1999) Survival after relapse in children and adolescents with rhabdomyosarcoma: A report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 17(11):3487–3493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Parham DM, Barr FG (2013) Classification of rhabdomyosarcoma and its molecular basis. Adv Anat Pathol 20(6):387–397. doi: 10.1097/PAP.0b013e3182a92d0d CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Parham DM, Roloson GJ, Feely M, Green DM, Bridge JA, Beckwith JB (2001) Primary malignant neuroepithelial tumors of the kidney: a clinicopathologic analysis of 146 adult and pediatric cases from the National Wilms’ Tumor Study Group Pathology Center. Am J Surg Pathol 25(2):133–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Park CM, Kim WS, Cheon JE, Kim CJ, Kim WY, Kim IO, Shin HY, Yeon KM (2003) Teratoid Wilms tumor in childhood: CT and ultrasonographic appearances. Abdom Imaging 28(3):440–443. doi: 10.1007/s00261-002-0044-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Parvey LS, Warner RM, Callihan TR, Magill HL (1981) CT demonstration of fat tissue in malignant renal neoplasms: atypical Wilms’ tumors. J Comput Assist Tomogr 5(6):851–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Pastore G, Znaor A, Spreafico F, Graf N, Pritchard-Jones K, Steliarova-Foucher E (2006) Malignant renal tumours incidence and survival in European children (1978–1997): report from the Automated Childhood Cancer Information System project. Eur J Cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 42(13):2103–2114. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2006.05.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Patel MD, Silva AC (2004) MRI of an adenomatoid tumor of the tunica albuginea. AJR Am J Roentgenol 182(2):415–417. doi: 10.2214/ajr.182.2.1820415 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Prasad SR, Humphrey PA, Menias CO, Middleton WD, Siegel MJ, Bae KT, Heiken JP (2005) Neoplasms of the renal medulla: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics Rev Publ Radiol Soc N Am Inc 25(2):369–380. doi: 10.1148/rg.252045073 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Priesemann M, Davies KM, Perry LA, Drake WM, Chew SL, Monson JP, Savage MO, Johnston LB (2006) Benefits of screening in von Hippel-Lindau disease-comparison of morbidity associated with initial tumours in affected parents and children. Horm Res 66(1):1–5. doi: 10.1159/000093008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Raney B, Anderson J, Jenney M, Arndt C, Brecht I, Carli M, Bisogno G, Oberlin O, Rey A, Treuner J, Ullrich F, Stevens M (2006) Late effects in 164 patients with rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder/prostate region: a report from the international workshop. J Urol 176(5):2190–2194. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2006.07.064; discussion 2194–2195CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Raney RB Jr, Tefft M, Lawrence W Jr, Ragab AH, Soule EH, Beltangady M, Gehan EA (1987) Paratesticular sarcoma in childhood and adolescence. A report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Studies I and II, 1973–1983. Cancer 60(9):2337–2343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Rialon KL, Gulack BC, Englum BR, Routh JC, Rice HE (2015) Factors impacting survival in children with renal cell carcinoma. J Pediatr Surg 50(6):1014–1018. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2015.03.027 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. Riccabona M, Ring E, Hausler M, Ratschek M, Fotter R (1999) Neonatal segmental cystic nephroma. A case report. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol 203(6):255–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Rohrschneider WK, Weirich A, Rieden K, Darge K, Troger J, Graf N (1998) US, CT and MR imaging characteristics of nephroblastomatosis. Pediatr Radiol 28(6):435–443. doi: 10.1007/s002470050378 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Rossi E, Pavanello P, Marzola A, Franchella A (2011) Eosinophilic cystitis and nephrogenic adenoma of the bladder: a rare association of 2 unusual findings in childhood. J Pediatr Surg 46(4):31–34. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2010.12.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Rump P, Zeegers MP, van Essen AJ (2005) Tumor risk in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: a review and meta-analysis. Am J Med Genet A 136(1):95–104. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.30729 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Saarinen UM, Wikstrom S, Koskimies O, Sariola H (1991) Percutaneous needle biopsy preceding preoperative chemotherapy in the management of massive renal tumors in children. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 9(3):406–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Sausville JE, Hernandez DJ, Argani P, Gearhart JP (2009) Pediatric renal cell carcinoma. J Pediatr Urol 5(4):308–314. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2009.04.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Schafernak KT, Yang XJ, Hsueh W, Leestma JL, Stagl J, Goldman S (2007) Pediatric renal cell carcinoma as second malignancy: reports of two cases and a review of the literature. Can J Urol 14(6):3739–3744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Scheithauer BW, Santi M, Richter ER, Belman B, Rushing EJ (2008) Diffuse ganglioneuromatosis and plexiform neurofibroma of the urinary bladder: report of a pediatric example and literature review. Hum Pathol 39(11):1708–1712. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2008.02.019 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Schelling J, Schroder A, Stein R, Rosch WH (2007) Ossifying renal tumor of infancy. J Pediatr Urol 3(3):258–261. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2006.05.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Schenk JP, Graf N, Gunther P, Ley S, Goppl M, Kulozik A, Rohrschneider WK, Troger J (2008) Role of MRI in the management of patients with nephroblastoma. Eur Radiol 18(4):683–691. doi: 10.1007/s00330-007-0826-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Schlesinger AE, Rosenfield NS, Castle VP, Jasty R (1995) Congenital mesoblastic nephroma metastatic to the brain: a report of two cases. Pediatr Radiol 25(Suppl 1):S73–S75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Schmidt D, Beckwith JB (1995) Histopathology of childhood renal tumors. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 9(6):1179–1200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Scott RH, Stiller CA, Walker L, Rahman N (2006a) Syndromes and constitutional chromosomal abnormalities associated with Wilms tumour. J Med Genet 43(9):705–715. doi: 10.1136/jmg.2006.041723 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  187. Scott RH, Walker L, Olsen OE, Levitt G, Kenney I, Maher E, Owens CM, Pritchard-Jones K, Craft A, Rahman N (2006b) Surveillance for Wilms tumour in at-risk children: pragmatic recommendations for best practice. Arch Dis Child 91(12):995–999. doi: 10.1136/adc.2006.101295 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  188. Segers H, Kersseboom R, Alders M, Pieters R, Wagner A, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM (2012) Frequency of WT1 and 11p15 constitutional aberrations and phenotypic correlation in childhood Wilms tumour patients. Eur J Cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 48(17):3249–3256. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2012.06.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Selle B, Furtwangler R, Graf N, Kaatsch P, Bruder E, Leuschner I (2006) Population-based study of renal cell carcinoma in children in Germany, 1980–2005: more frequently localized tumors and underlying disorders compared with adult counterparts. Cancer 107(12):2906–2914. doi: 10.1002/cncr.22346 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Shamberger RC, Guthrie KA, Ritchey ML, Haase GM, Takashima J, Beckwith JB, D’Angio GJ, Green DM, Breslow NE (1999) Surgery-related factors and local recurrence of Wilms tumor in National Wilms Tumor Study 4. Ann Surg 229(2):292–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Shimada H, Misugi K, Sasaki Y, Iizuka A, Nishihira H (1980) Carcinoma of the prostate in childhood and adolescence: report of a case and review of the literature. Cancer 46(11):2534–2542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Sinclair N, Babyn P, Kinloch M, Sinha R, Sinclair N, Babyn P, Kinloch M, Sinha R (2014) A rare and unusual case of Burkitt’s lymphoma presenting with a prostate mass in a 12-year-Old Boy. Case Rep Radiol 42:233–238. doi: 10.1155/2014/106176 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Sköldenberg EG, Jakobson A, Elvin A, Sandstedt B, Läckgren G, Christofferson RH (1999) Pretreatment, ultrasound-guided cutting needle biopsies in childhood renal tumors. Med Pediatr Oncol 32(4):283–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Slasky BS, Bar-Ziv J, Freeman AI, Peylan-Ramu N (1997) CT appearances of involvement of the peritoneum, mesentery and omentum in Wilms’ tumor. Pediatr Radiol 27(1):14–17. doi: 10.1007/s002470050053 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Smets AM, de Kraker J (2010) Malignant tumours of the kidney: imaging strategy. Pediatr Radiol 40(6):1010–1018. doi: 10.1007/s00247-010-1584-z CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  196. Smets AM, van Tinteren H, Bergeron C, De Camargo B, Graf N, Pritchard-Jones K, de Kraker J (2012) The contribution of chest CT-scan at diagnosis in children with unilateral Wilms’ tumour. Results of the SIOP 2001 study. Eur J Cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 48(7):1060–1065. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2011.05.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Sotelo-Avila C, Beckwith JB, Johnson JE (1995) Ossifying renal tumor of infancy: a clinicopathologic study of nine cases. Pediatr Pathol Lab Med J Socr Pediatr Pathol Affiliated Int Paediatr Pathol Assoc 15(5):745–762Google Scholar
  198. Spreafico F, Pritchard-Jones K, Bergeron C, de Kraker J, Dallorso S, Graf N (2009) Value and difficulties of a common European strategy for recurrent Wilms’ tumor. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 9(6):693–696. doi: 10.1586/era.09.45 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Sredni ST, Tomita T (2015) Rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome. Pediatr Dev Pathol Off J Soc Pediatr Pathol Paediatr Pathol Soc 18(1):49–58. doi: 10.2350/14-07-1531-misc.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Strauss S, Libson E, Schwartz E, Peylan-Ramu N, Lebensart PD, Bloom RA, Itzchak Y (1986) Renal sonography in American Burkitt lymphoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 146(3):549–552. doi: 10.2214/ajr.146.3.549 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Subhas N, Argani P, Gearhart JP, Siegelman SS (2004) Nephrogenic rests mimicking Wilms’ tumor on CT. Pediatr Radiol 34(2):152–155. doi: 10.1007/s00247-003-1008-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Sudour H, Audry G, Schleimacher G, Patte C, Dussart S, Bergeron C (2012) Bilateral Wilms tumors (WT) treated with the SIOP 93 protocol in France: epidemiological survey and patient outcome. Pediatr Blood Cancer 59(1):57–61. doi: 10.1002/pbc.24059 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Sung L, Anderson JR, Arndt C, Raney RB, Meyer WH, Pappo AS (2004) Neurofibromatosis in children with Rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma study IV. J Pediatr 144(5):666–668. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2004.02.026 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Swartz MA, Karth J, Schneider DT, Rodriguez R, Beckwith JB, Perlman EJ (2002) Renal medullary carcinoma: clinical, pathologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic analysis with pathogenetic implications. Urology 60(6):1083–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Szavay P, Luithle T, Graf N, Furtwangler R, Fuchs J (2006) Primary hepatic metastases in nephroblastoma – a report of the SIOP/GPOH Study. J Pediatr Surg 41(1):168–172. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2005.10.021; discussion 168–172CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Thompson RH, Dicks D, Kramer SA, Thompson RH, Dicks D, Kramer SA (2005) Clinical manifestations and functional outcomes in children with eosinophilic cystitis. J Urol 174(6):2347–2349. doi: 10.1097/01.ju.0000180423.06285.72 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Tomlinson GE, Breslow NE, Dome J, Guthrie KA, Norkool P, Li S, Thomas PR, Perlman E, Beckwith JB, D’Angio GJ, Green DM (2005) Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney in the National Wilms’ Tumor Study: age at diagnosis as a prognostic factor. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 23(30):7641–7645. doi: 10.1200/jco.2004.00.8110 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Trnka P, Orellana L, Walsh M, Pool L, Borzi P (2014) Reninoma: an uncommon cause of Renin-mediated hypertension. Front Pediatr 2:89. doi: 10.3389/fped.2014.00089 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  209. van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, Grundy P, Graf N, Pritchard-Jones K, Bergeron C, Patte C, van Tinteren H, Rey A, Langford C, Anderson JR, de Kraker J (2008) Characteristics and survival of 750 children diagnosed with a renal tumor in the first seven months of life: A collaborative study by the SIOP/GPOH/SFOP, NWTSG, and UKCCSG Wilms tumor study groups. Pediatr Blood Cancer 50(6):1130–1134. doi: 10.1002/pbc.21389 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, van Tinteren H, Rehorst H, Coulombe A, Patte C, de Camargo B, de Kraker J, Leuschner I, Lugtenberg R, Pritchard-Jones K, Sandstedt B, Spreafico F, Graf N, Vujanic GM (2011) Malignant rhabdoid tumours of the kidney (MRTKs), registered on recent SIOP protocols from 1993 to 2005: a report of the SIOP renal tumour study group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 56(5):733–737. doi: 10.1002/pbc.22922 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. van den Hoek J, de Krijger R, van de Ven K, Lequin M, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM (2009) Cystic nephroma, cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma and cystic Wilms’ tumor in children: a spectrum with therapeutic dilemmas. Urol Int 82(1):65–70. doi: 10.1159/000176028 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Vazquez JL, Barnewolt CE, Shamberger RC, Chung T, Perez-Atayde AR (1998) Ossifying renal tumor of infancy presenting as a palpable abdominal mass. Pediatr Radiol 28(6):454–457. doi: 10.1007/s002470050381 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Vicha A, Stejskalova E, Sumerauer D, Kodet R, Malis J, Kucerova H, Bedrnicek J, Koutecky J, Eckschlager T (2002) Malignant peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 139(1):67–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Vujanic GM, Harms D, Sandstedt B, Weirich A, de Kraker J, Delemarre JF (1999) New definitions of focal and diffuse anaplasia in Wilms tumor: the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) experience. Med Pediatr Oncol 32(5):317–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Vujanić GM, Kelsey A, Mitchell C, Shannon RS, Gornall P (2003) The role of biopsy in the diagnosis of renal tumors of childhood: results of the UKCCSG Wilms tumor study. Med Pediatr Oncol 40(1):18–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Vujanic GM, Kelsey A, Perlman EJ, Sandstedt B, Beckwith JB (2007) Anaplastic sarcoma of the kidney: a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases of a new entity with polyphenotypic features. Am J Surg Pathol 31(10):1459–1468. doi: 10.1097/PAS.0b013e31804d43a4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Vujanic GM, Sandstedt B, Dijoud F, Harms D, Delemarre JF (1995) Nephrogenic rest associated with a mesoblastic nephroma – what does it tell us? Pediatr Pathol Lab Med J Socr Pediatr Pathol Affiliated Int Paediatr Pathol Assoc 15(3):469–475Google Scholar
  218. Vujanic GM, Sandstedt B, Harms D, Boccon-Gibod L, Delemarre JF (1996) Rhabdoid tumour of the kidney: a clinicopathological study of 22 patients from the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) nephroblastoma file. Histopathology 28(4):333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Vujanic GM, Sandstedt B, Harms D, Kelsey A, Leuschner I, de Kraker J (2002) Revised International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) working classification of renal tumors of childhood. Med Pediatr Oncol 38(2):79–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Waisman SS, Banko J, Cromie WJ (1990) Single polypoid cystitis cystica and glandularis presenting as benign bladder tumor. Urology 36(4):364–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Wallace B, Organ M, Bagnell S, Rendon R, Merrimen J (2015) Renal cell carcinoma after neuroblastoma: A case study and review of the literature. Can Urol Assoc J Journal de l’Association des urologues du Canada 9(5–6):E316–E318. doi: 10.5489/cuaj.2564 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Wang ZP, Li K, Dong KR, Xiao XM, Zheng S (2014) Congenital mesoblastic nephroma: clinical analysis of eight cases and a review of the literature. Oncol Lett 8(5):2007–2011. doi: 10.3892/ol.2014.2489 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  223. Warmann SW, Nourkami N, Fruhwald M, Leuschner I, Schenk JP, Fuchs J, Graf N (2012) Primary lung metastases in pediatric malignant non-Wilms renal tumors: data from SIOP 93-01/GPOH and SIOP 2001/GPOH. Klin Padiatr 224(3):148–152. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1304600 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Weeks DA, Beckwith JB, Mierau GW, Luckey DW (1989) Rhabdoid tumor of kidney. A report of 111 cases from the National Wilms’ Tumor Study Pathology Center. Am J Surg Pathol 13(6):439–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Weinberger E, Rosenbaum DM, Pendergrass TW (1990) Renal involvement in children with lymphoma: comparison of CT with sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 155(2):347–349. doi: 10.2214/ajr.155.2.2115266 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Weiss AR, Lyden ER, Anderson JR, Hawkins DS, Spunt SL, Walterhouse DO, Wolden SL, Parham DM, Rodeberg DA, Kao SC, Womer RB (2013) Histologic and clinical characteristics can guide staging evaluations for children and adolescents with rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 31(26):3226–3232. doi: 10.1200/jco.2012.44.6476 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Wilde JC, Aronson DC, Sznajder B, Van Tinteren H, Powis M, Okoye B, Cecchetto G, Audry G, Fuchs J, Schweinitz DV, Heij H, Graf N, Bergeron C, Pritchard-Jones K, Van Den Heuvel-Eibrink M, Carli M, Oldenburger F, Sandstedt B, De Kraker J, Godzinski J (2014) Nephron sparing surgery (NSS) for unilateral wilms tumor (UWT): the SIOP 2001 experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer 61(12):2175–2179. doi: 10.1002/pbc.25185 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Wilimas JA, Kaste SC, Kauffman WM, Winer-Muram H, Morris R, Luo X, Boyett JM (1997) Use of chest computed tomography in the staging of pediatric Wilms’ tumor: interobserver variability and prognostic significance. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 15(7):2631–2635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Wootton-Gorges SL, Thomas KB, Harned RK, Wu SR, Stein-Wexler R, Strain JD (2005) Giant cystic abdominal masses in children. Pediatr Radiol 35(12):1277–1288. doi: 10.1007/s00247-005-1559-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Xu G, Hu J, Wu Y, Xiao Y, Xu M (2013) Botryoid Wilms’ tumor: a case report and review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol 11:102. doi: 10.1186/1477-7819-11-102 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  231. Zhuge Y, Cheung MC, Yang R, Perez EA, Koniaris LG, Sola JE (2010) Pediatric non-Wilms renal tumors: subtypes, survival, and prognostic indicators. J Surg Res 163(2):257–263. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2010.03.061 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Zollner S, Dirksen U, Jurgens H, Ranft A (2013) Renal Ewing tumors. Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol ESMO 24(9):2455–2461. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdt215 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Zoubek A, Slavc I, Mann G, Trittenwein G, Gadner H (1999) Natural course of a Wilms’ tumour. Lancet (London, England) 354(9175):344. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(05)75257-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyAcademic Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyInstitut CurieParisFrance

Personalised recommendations