Advertisement

Imaging in Renal Failure, Neonatal Oligoanuria, and Renal Transplantation

  • Maria Beatrice Damasio
  • Christoph Mache
  • Michael Riccabona
Chapter
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Many children who suffer from congenital, hereditary, or severe acquired renal disease have a substantially diminished number of functioning nephrons. Loss of nephrons cannot be replaced by new units, and recovery is impossible. Consequently, according to the patient’s age, different diseases enter a common pathway of progressive renal dysfunction called chronic renal failure (CRF). Further deterioration is associated with clinical symptoms and loss of metabolic control. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is reached when survival is possible with only renal replacement therapy. Aside from all medical and psychosocial care during CRF and ESRD, renal transplantation is the ultimate goal to optimize rehabilitation and lifestyle. This chapter is devoted to these children who need lifelong multidisciplinary care and treatment, including pediatric radiology.

References

  1. Al-Hermi BE, Al-Saran K, Secker D et al (1999) Hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease in children weighing less than 10 kg. Pediatr Nephrol 13:401–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andreoli SP (2004) Acute renal failure in the newborn. Sem Perinatol 28:112–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ardissino G, Dacco V, Testa S et al (2003) Epidemiology of chronic renal failure in children: data from the ItalKid project. Pediatrics 111:382–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avni FE, Bali MA, Regnault M et al (2002) MR urography in children. Eur J Radiol 43:154–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avni FE, Garel C, Cassart M, D’Haene N, Hall M, Riccabona M (2012) Imaging and classification of congenital cystic renal diseases. AJR Am J Roentgenol 198:1004–1013PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barba J, Rioja J, Robles JE, Rinco’n A, Rosell D, Zudaire JJ, Berian JM, Pascual I, Benito A, Errasti P (2011) Immediate renal Doppler ultrasonography findings (<24 h) and its association with graft survival. World J Urol 29:547–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blowey DL, Querfeld U, Geary D et al (1996) Ultrasound findings in juvenile nephronophthisis. Pediatr Nephrol 10:22–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bou Matar R, Warshaw B, Hymes L et al (2012) Routine transplant Doppler ultrasonography following pediatric kidney transplant. Pediatr Transplant 16:607–612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brion LP, Bernstein J, Spitzer A (1997) Diseases of the fetus and infant–kidney and urinary tract. In: Fanaroff AA, Martin RJ (eds) Neonatal-perinatal medicine. Mosby Year Book, St Louis, pp 1564–1636Google Scholar
  10. Brittinger WD, Walker G, Twittenhoff WD et al (1997) Vascular access for hemodialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 11:87–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Broome DR, Girguis MS, Baron PW et al (2007) Gadodiamide-associated nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: why radiologists should be concerned. Am J Roentgenol 188:586–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bruel A, Allain-Launay E, Humbert J, Ryckewaert A, Champion G, Moreau A, Renaudin K, Karam G, Roussey-Kesler G (2014) Early protocol biopsies in pediatric renal transplantation: interest for the adaptation of immunosuppression. Pediatr Transplant 18:142–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bunchman TE (1995) Chronic dialysis in the infant less than 1 year of age. Pediatr Nephrol 9:S18–S22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cattarelli D, Spandrio M, Gasparoni A et al (2006) A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial of the effect of theophylline in prevention of vasomotor nephropathy in very preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 91:F80–F84PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chand DH, Brier M, Strife CF (2005) Comparison of vascular access type in pediatric hemodialysis patients with respect to urea clearance, anemia management, and serum albumin concentration. Am J Kidney Dis 45:303–308PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chuang YF, Tsai TC (1998) Sonographic findings in familial juvenile nephronophthisis-medullary cystic disease complex. J Clin Ultrasound 26:203–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clark DA (1977) Time of first void and first stool in 500 newborns. Pediatrics 60:457–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Comoli P, Ginevri F (2012) Monitoring and managing viral infections in pediatric renal transplant recipients. Pediatr Nephrol 27:705–717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Comoli P, Maccario R, Locatelli F, Valente U, Basso S, Garaventa A, Tomà P, Botti G, Melioli G, Baldanti F, Nocera A, Perfumo F, Ginevri F (2005) Treatment of EBV-related post-renal transplant lymphoproliferative disease with a tailored regimen including EBV-specific T cells. Am J Transplant 5:1415–1422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Coulthard MG, Keir MJ (2006) Reflux nephropathy in kidney transplants, demonstrated by dimercaptosuccinic acid scanning. Transplantation 82(2):205–210PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cravedi P, Kopp JB, Remuzzi G (2013) Recent progress in the pathophysiology and treatment of FSGS recurrence. Am J Transplant 13:266–274PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Damasio B, Ording LS, Marks St, Riccabona M (2017) Imaging in paediatric renal transplantation. Pediatr Transplantation 21 (3):e12885. DOI: 10.1111/petr.12885 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davenport MS, Khalatbari S, Dillamn JR et al (2013) Contrast-material induced nephrotoxicity and intravenous low-osmolality iodinated contrast material. Radiology 267:94–105PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dharnidharka VR, Martz KL, Stablein DM, Benfield MR (2011a) Improved survival with recent post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in children with kidney transplants. Am J Transplant 11:751–758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dharnidharka VR, Abdulnour HA, Araya CE (2011b) The BK virus in renal transplant recipients — review of pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Pediatr Nephrol 26:1763–1774PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dharnidharka VR, Fiorina P, Harmon WE (2014) Kidney transplantation in children. N Engl J Med 371:549–558PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Drake DG, Day DL, Letourneau JG, Alford BA, Sibley RK, Mauer SM, Bunchman TE (1990) Doppler evaluation of renal transplants in children: a prospective analysis with histopathologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol 154:785–787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ehrich JHH, Loirat C, Brunner FP et al (1992) Report on management of renal failure in children in Europe XXII, 1991. Nephrol Dial Transplant 7(Suppl 2):36–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. El Atat R, Derouiche A, Guellouz S, Gargah T, Lakhoua R, Chebil M (2010) Surgical complications in pediatric and adolescent renal transplantation. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 21:251–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Ellis D, Kaye RD, Bontempo FA (1997) Aortic and renal artery thrombosis in a neonate: recovery with thrombolytic therapy. Pediatr Nephrol 11:641–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. El-Merhi FM, Bae KT (2004) Cystic renal disease. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 12:449–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Elzouki AY, al Suhaibani H, Mirza K et al (1996) Thin-section computed tomography scans detect medullary cysts in patients believed to have juvenile nephronophthisis. Am J Kidney Dis 27:216–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Faller U, Stegen P, Klaus G et al (1998) Sonographic determination of the thickness of the peritoneum in healthy children and paediatric patients on CAPD. Nephrol Dial Transplant 13:3172–3177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fitch SJ, Stapleton FB (1986) Ultrasonographic features of glomerulocystic disease in infancy: similarity to infantile polycystic kidney disease. Pediatr Radiol 16:400–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fontaine E, Gagnadoux MF, Niaudet P et al (1998) Renal transplantation in children with augmentation cystoplasty: long-term results. J Urol 159:2110–2113PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Garel LA, Habib R, Pariente D et al (1984) Juvenile nephronophthisis: sonographic appearance in children with severe uremia. Radiology 151:93–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gordon I, Riccabona M (2003) Investigating the newborn kidney: update on imaging techniques. Sem Neonatol 8:269–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Guay-Woodford LM (2006) Renal cystic diseases: diverse phenotypes converge on the cilium/centrosome complex. Pediatr Nephrol 21:1369–1376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hardy BE, Shah T, Cicciarelli J, Lemley KV, Hutchinson IV, Cho YW (2009) Kidney transplantation in children and adolescents: an analysis of United Network for Organ Sharing Database. Transplant Proc 41:1533–1535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Harmon WE (2010) Pediatric renal transplantation. In: Himmelfarb J, Sayegh MH (eds) Chronic kidney disease, dialysis and transplantation. Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 591–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hentschel R, Lödige B, Bulla M (1996) Renal insufficiency in the neonatal period. Clin Nephrol 46:54–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hibbert J, Howlett DC, Greenwood KL et al (1997) The ultrasound appearances of neonatal renal vein thrombosis. Br J Radiol 70:1191–1194PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hildebrandt F, Otto E (2005) Cilia and centrosomes: a unifying pathogenic concept for cystic kidney disease? Nat Rev Genet 6:928–940PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hildebrandt F, Strahm B, Nothwang HG et al (1997) Molecular genetic identification of families with juvenile nephronophthisis type 1: rate of progression to renal failure. Kidney Int 51:261–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hirsch FW, Sattler B, Sorge I, Kurch L, Viehweger A, Ritter L, Werner P, Jochimsen T, Henryk Barthel H, Bierbach U, Till H, Sabri O, Kluge R (2013) PET/MR in children. Initial clinical experience in paediatric oncology using an integrated PET/MR scanner. Pediatr Radiol 43:860–875PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hogg RJ (1992) Acquired renal cystic disease in children prior to the start of dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 6:176–178CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hogg RJ, Furth S, Lemley KV et al (2003) National Kidney Foundation’s kidney outcomes quality initiative clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease in children and adolescents: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Pediatrics 111:1416–1421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Howlett DC, Greenwood KL, Jarosz JM et al (1997) The incidence of transient medullary hyperechogenicity in neonatal ultrasound examination. Br J Radiol 70:140–143PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Huber W, Eckel F, Henning M et al (2006) Prophylaxis of contrast material-induced nephropathy in patients in intensive care: acetylcysteine, theophylline, or both? A randomized study. Radiology 239:793–804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Huet F, Semama D, Grimaldi M et al (1995) Effects of theophylline on renal insufficiency in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med 21:511–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Karlowicz MG, Adelman RD (1995) Nonoliguric and oliguric acute renal failure in asphyxiated term neonates. Pediatr Nephrol 9:718–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kidney Disease: Improving global outcomes (KDIGO) CKD Work Group. (2013) KDIGO (2013) Clinical practise guidelines for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 3(Suppl):1–150Google Scholar
  53. Kidney Disease: Improving global outcomes (KDIGO) CKD-MBD Work Group (2009) KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment of chronic kidney disease – mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Kidney Int 76(Suppl 113):S1–S130Google Scholar
  54. Klaus G, Watson A, Edefonti A et al (2006) Prevention and treatment of renal osteodystrophy in children on chronic renal failure: European guidelines. Pediatr Nephrol 21:151–159PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kolofousi C, Stefanidis K, Cokkinos DD, Karakitsos D, Antypa E, Piperopoulos P (2012) Ultrasonographic features of kidney transplants and their complications: an imaging review. ISRN Radiol 2013:480862PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Kolonko A, Wiecek A, Kokot F (1998) The nonselective adenosine antagonist theophylline does prevent renal dysfunction induced by radiographic contrast agents. J Nephrol 11:151–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Koo HP, Bunchman TE, Flynn JT et al (1999) Renal transplantation in children with severe lower urinary tract dysfunction. J Urol 161:240–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Krestin GP, Kacl G, Hauser M et al (1995) Imaging diagnosis of sclerosing peritonitis and relation of radiologic signs to the extent of disease. Abdom Imaging 20:414–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kupferman JC (1994) Acute renal failure in newborn infants: incidence, management and outcome. Clin Res 42:449AGoogle Scholar
  60. Lamy C, Oppenheim C, Méder JF, Mas JL (2004) Neuroimaging in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. J Neuroimaging 14:89–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Leichter HE, Dietrich R, Salusky I et al (1988) Acquired cystic kidney disease in children undergoing long-term dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 2:8–11PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lerner GR, Warady BA, Sullivan EK et al (1999) Chronic dialysis in children and adolescents. The 1996 Annual Report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study. Pediatr Nephrol 13:404–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Levine E (1992) Renal cell carcinoma in uremic acquired renal cystic disease: incidence, detection, and management. Urol Radiol 13:203–210PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Luciano R, Gallini F, Romagnoli C et al (1998) Doppler evaluation of renal blood flow velocity as a predictive index of acute renal failure in perinatal asphyxia. Eur J Pediatr 157:656–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mattoo TK, Greifer I, Geva P et al (1997) Acquired renal cystic disease in children and young adults on maintenance dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 11:447–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McDonald JS, McDonald RJ, Comin J et al (2013a) Frequency of acute kidney injury following intravenous contrast administration: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Radiology 267:119–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McDonald RJ, McDonald JS, Bida JP et al (2013b) Intravenous contrast-induced nephropathy: causal or coincident phenomenon? Radiology 267:106–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McDonald RJ, McDonald JS, Kallmes DF, Jentoft ME, Murray DL, Thielen KR, Williamson EE, Eckel LJ (2015) Intracranial gadolinium deposition after contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology 275:772–782PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Murphy SW, Barrett BJ, Parfrey PS (2000) Contrast nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol 11:177–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Nakamura M, Yokota K, Chen C et al (1999) Hyperechoic renal papillae as a physiological finding in neonates. Clin Radiol 54:233–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nankivell BJ, Alexander SI (2010) Rejection of the kidney allograft. N Engl J Med 363:1451–1462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Neu AM, Ho PL, McDonald RA et al (2002) Chronic dialysis in children and adolescents. The 2001 NAPRTCS annual report. Pediatr Nephrol 17:656–663PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Newhouse JH, Kho D, Rao QA, Starren J (2008) Frequency of serum creatinine changes in the absence of iodinated contrast material: implications for studies of contrast nephropathy. Am J Radiol 191:376–382Google Scholar
  74. Nixon JN, Biyyam DR, Stanescu L, Phillips GS, Finn LS, Parisi MT (2013) Imaging of pediatric renal transplants and their complications: a pictorial review. Radiographics 33:1227–1251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Oh J, Wunsch R, Turzer M et al (2002) Advanced coronary and carotid arteriopathy in young adults with childhood onset chronic renal failure. Circulation 106:100–105PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Parekh RS, Gidding SS (2005) Cardiovascular complications in pediatric end-stage renal disease. Pediatr Nephrol 20:125–131PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Plum J, Sudkamp S, Grabensee B (1994) Results of ultrasound-assisted diagnosis of tunnel infections in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 23:99–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Potluri K, Holt D, Hou S (2014) Neurologic complications in renal transplantation. Handb Clin Neurol 121:1245–1255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Prischl FC, Muhr T, Seiringer EM, Funk S, Kronabethleitner G, Wallner M, Artmann W, Kramar R (2002) Magnetic resonance imaging of the peritoneal cavity among peritoneal dialysis patients, using the dialysate as “contrast medium”. J Am Soc Nephrol 13:197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Purz S, Sabri O, Viehweger A, Barthel H, Kluge R, Sorge I, Hirsch FW (2014) Potential pediatric applications of PET/MR. J Nucl Med 55:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Querfeld U, Schneble F, Wradzilo W et al (1992) Acquired cystic kidney disease before and after renal transplantation. J Pediatr 121:61–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ramage IJ, Bailie A, Tyerman KS et al (2005) Vascular access survival in children and young adults receiving long-term hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 45:708–714PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Riccabona M (2006) Renal failure in neonates, infants, and children: the role of ultrasound. Ultrasound Clin 1:457–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Riccabona M (2014a) Chapter 17. Contrast media use in pediatrics: safety issues. In: Thomson HS, Webb AW (eds) Contrast media: safety issues and ESUR guidelines, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Riccabona M (2014b) Ultrasound guided interventions – other intracavitary contrast applications. In: Riccabona M (ed) Pediatric ultrasound – requisites and applications. Springer, Heiderlber/Dordrecht, pp 67–68. ISBN 978-3-642-39155-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Riccabona M, Ring E, Petritsch P (1993) Farbdopplersonographie in der Differentialdiagnose unilateraler kongenitaler zystischer Nierenmissbildungen. Z Geburtshilfe Perinatol 197:283–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Riccabona M, Simbrunner J, Ring E et al (2002) Feasibility of MR urography in neonates and infants with anomalies of the upper urinary tract. Eur Radiol 12:1442–1450CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Riccabona M, Avni F, Damasio B, Ordning-Mueller LS, Lobo ML, Darge K, Papadopoulou F, Willi U, Blickmann J, Vivier PH (2012) ESPR Uroradiology Task Force and ESUR Paediatric Working Group – imaging recommendations in paediatric uroradiology, part V: childhood cystic kidney disease, childhood renal transplantation, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound in children. Pediatr Radiol 42:1275–1283PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Riccabona M, Lobo ML, Willi U, Avni F, Blickmann J, Damasio B, Ordning-Mueller LS, Darge K, Papadopoulou F, Vivier PH (2014) ESPR Uroradiology Task Force and ESUR Paediatric Working Group – imaging recommendations in paediatric uroradiology, part VI: childhood renal biopsy and imaging of neonatal and infant genital tract. Minutes from the Task Force session at the annual ESPR Meeting 2012 in Athens on childhood renal biopsy and imaging neonatal genitalia. Pediatr Radiol 44:496–502PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Riebel TW, Abraham K, Wartner R et al (1993) Transient medullary hyperechogenicity in ultrasound studies of neonates: is it a normal phenomenon and what are the causes? J Clin Ultrasound 21:25–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rigamonti W, Capizzi A, Zacchello G et al (2005) Kidney transplantation into bladder augmentation or urinary diversion: long-term results. Transplantation 80:1435–1440CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Rigden SPA (1996) The treatment of renal osteodystrophy. Pediatr Nephrol 10:653–655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rödl S, Marschitz I, Mache CJ, Nagel B, Koestenberger M, Zobel G (2012a) Hemodiafiltration in infants with complications during peritoneal dialysis. Artif Organ 36:590–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rödl S, Marschaitz I, Mache CJ, Nagel B, Koesetnberger M, Zobel G (2012b) Hemodiafiltration in infants with complications during peritoneal dialysis. Artif Organs 36:590–593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rosado E, Riccabona M (2016) Off-label use of ultrasound contrast agents for intravenous applications in children – a meta-analysis. J Ultrasound Med 35(3):487–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rose GM, Conley SB (1989) Unilateral hydrothorax in small children on chronic continuous peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 3:89–91CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Salusky IB, Goodman WG (1996) The management of renal osteodystrophy. Pediatr Nephrol 10:651–653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sanyal S, Marckmann P, Scherer S, Abraham JL (2011) Multiorgan gadolinium (Gd) deposition and fibrosis in a patient with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis—an autopsy-based review. Nephrol Dial Transplant 26:3616–3626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Saunier S, Salomon R, Antignac C (2005) Nephronophthisis. Curr Opin Genet Dev 15:324–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schärer K, Schmidt KG, Soergel M (1999) Cardiac function and structure in patients with chronic renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 13:951–996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Schober T, Framke T, Kreipe H, Schulz TF, Großhennig A, Hussein K, Baumann U, Pape L, Schubert S, Wingen AM, Jack T, Koch A, Klein C, Maeker-Kolhoff B (2013) Characteristics of early and late PTLD development in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients. Transplantation 95:240–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Schwartz GJ, Haycock GB, Edelman CM Jr et al (1976) A simple estimate of glomerular filtration rate in children derived from body length and plasma creatinine. Pediatrics 58:259–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Schwartz GJ, Feld LG, Langford DJ (1984) A simple estimate of glomerular filtration rate in full-term infants during the first year of life. J Pediatr 104:849–854Google Scholar
  104. Scott JES, Hunter EW, Lee REJ et al (1990) Ultrasound measurement of renal size in newborn infants. Arch Dis Child 65:361–364PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Shroff R, Rees L (2004) The post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder-a literature review. Pediatr Nephrol 19:369–377CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Siedlecki A, Irish W, Brennan DC (2011) Delayed graft function in the kidney transplant. Am J Transplant 11:2279–2796PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Slovis TL, Bernstein J, Gruskin A (1993) Hyperechoic kidneys in the newborn and young infant. Pediatr Nephrol 7:294–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Solez K, Colvin RB, Racusen LC et al (2008) Banff 07 classification of renal allograft pathology: updates and future directions. Am J Transplant 8:753–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Stafford-Johnson DB, Wilson TE, Francis IR et al (1998) CT appearance of sclerosing peritonitis in patients on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J Comput Assist Tomogr 22:295–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Starinsky R, Vardi O, Batasch D et al (1995) Increased renal medullary echogenicity in neonates. Pediatr Radiol 25(Suppl 1):S43–S45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Stenzel M, Mentzel HJ (2014) Ultrasound elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound in infants, children and adolescents. Eur J Radiol 83:1560–1569PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Taylor PM (2002) Image-guided peritoneal access and management of complications in peritoneal dialysis. Semin Dial 15:250–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Thomsen HS (2006) Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: a serious late adverse reaction to gadodiamide. Eur Radiol 16:2619–2621PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Thomsen HS, Stacul F, Webb JAW (2014) Contrast induced nephropathy. In: Thomson HS, Webb AW (eds) Contrast media: safety issues and ESUR guidelines, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 81–104. ISBN 978-3-642-36723-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Tsai EW and Ettenger RB (2010) Kidney transplantation in children in Handbook of kidney transplantation. 5th edn. Edited by Danovitch GM by Lipincott Williams&WilkinsGoogle Scholar
  116. Valoti E, Alberti M, Noris M (2012) Posttransplant recurrence of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. J Nephrol 25:911–917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Vychtytil A, Lilay T, Lorenz M et al (1999) Ultrasonography of the catheter tunnel in peritoneal dialysis patients: what are the indications? Am J Kidney Dis 33:722–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wang PA, Huang FY (1994) Time of first defecation and urination in very low birth weight infants. Eur J Pediatr 153:279–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wikstad I, Celsi G, Larsson L et al (1988) Kidney function in adults born with unilateral renal agenesis or nephrectomized in childhood. Pediatr Nephrol 2:177–182PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Winyard PJD, Bharucha T, De Bruyn R et al (2006) Perinatal renal venous thrombosis: presenting renal length predicts outcome. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 91:F273–F278PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wong JC, Rossleigh MA, Farnsworth RH (1995) Utility of technetium-99m-MAG3 diuretic renography in the neonatal period. J Nucl Med 36:2214–2219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Wright NB, Blanch G, Walkinshaw S et al (1996) Antenatal and neonatal renal vein thrombosis: new ultrasonic features with high frequency transducers. Pediatr Radiol 26:686–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zaninovic AC, Westra SJ, Hall TR et al (1992) Congenital bladder rupture and urine ascites secondary to a sacrococcygeal teratoma. Pediatr Radiol 22:509–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Beatrice Damasio
    • 1
  • Christoph Mache
    • 2
  • Michael Riccabona
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Radiology, Division of RadiologyGiannina Gaslini InstituteGenoaItaly
  2. 2.Department of PadiatricsUniversity Hospital LKH GrazGrazAustria
  3. 3.Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric RadiologyUniversity Hospital LKH GrazGrazAustria

Personalised recommendations