Female Genital Anomalies and Important Ovarian Conditions

  • Gisela SchweigmannEmail author
  • Theresa E. Geley
  • Ingmar Gassner
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Congenital anomalies of the female genital tract result from Müllerian duct anomalies and/or abnormalities of the urogenital sinus or cloaca. Understanding the development of the urogenital system is necessary to comprehend the full spectrum of these anomalies.

In this chapter we explain the embryology of the female genitalia and describe Müllerian duct anomalies, female hypospadias, and urogenital sinus in disorders of sex development (DSD) and cloacal malformations.

Ovarian cysts are frequently seen on ultrasound, and ovarian torsion is an important differential diagnosis in lower abdominal pain or ovarian mass and has therefore been included in this chapter, although they are not closely related etiologically to the abovementioned malformations and organ systems.

Ultrasound is the primary imaging modality for the evaluation of the female genital tract. Complementary fluoroscopic examinations and in some cases abdominal radiographs provide additional information. In selected cases and prior to surgery, magnetic resonance imaging is used in this field.


Female genital anomalies Müllerian duct anomalies Urogenital sinus anomalies Cloacal malformations Disorders of sex development Female hypospadias Ovarian cysts Ovarian torsion Ultrasound Fluoroscopy Magnetic resonance imaging 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gisela Schweigmann
    • 1
    Email author
  • Theresa E. Geley
    • 1
  • Ingmar Gassner
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Pediatric RadiologyMedical University of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria

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