Advertisement

Renal Failure and Renal Transplantation

  • Ekkehard Ring
  • Holger Hubmann
  • Birgit Acham-Roschitz
Chapter
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Acute renal failure, nowadays called acute kidney injury (AKI), is a sudden-onset disease with the inability of the kidneys to maintain body homeostasis and to excrete creatinine and urea adequately. AKI may be completely reversible but can be the first step to a chronic disease with a diminished number of nephrons, named chronic renal failure (CRF). In addition, AKI may be superimposed on CRF worsening the prognosis significantly. Neonatal AKI (nAKI) has to be seen in the context of switching from fetal situation to postpartal renal function and is discussed separately. Children suffering from congenital, hereditary, or severe acquired renal disease, basically or caused by injury, have a substantially diminished number of nephrons. Loss of nephrons cannot be replaced by new units, and recovery is impossible. Consequently, according to the patient’s age, different diseases enter a common pathway of progressive renal dysfunction, CRF. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is reached when survival is only possible with renal replacement therapy. Aside from all medical and psychosocial care during CRF and ESRD, renal transplantation (RTx) is the ultimate goal to optimize rehabilitation and lifestyle.

References

  1. Acott PD (2006) Polyoma virus in pediatric renal transplantation. Pediatr Transplant 10:856–890CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Akcan-Arikan A, Zappitelli M, Loftis LL et al (2007) Modified RIFLE criteria in critically ill children with acute kidney injury. Kidney Int 71:1028–1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andreoli SP (2009) Acute kidney injury in children. Pediatr Nephrol 24:253–263CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexander SI, Fletcher JT, Nankivell B (2007) Chronic allograft nephropathy in paediatric renal transplantation. Pediatr Nephrol 22:17–23CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ardissino G, Dacco V, Testa S et al (2003) Epidemiology of chronic renal failure in children: data from the ItalKid project. Pediatrics 111:382–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Askenazi DJ, Goldstein SL, Koralkar R et al (2013) Continuous renal replacement therapy for children ≤10 kg: a report from the prospective pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy registry. J Pediatr 162:587–592CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Askenazi D, Koralkar R, Levitan EB et al (2011) Baseline values of candidate urine acute kidney injury (AKI) biomarkers vary by gestational age in premature infants. Pediatr Res 70:302–306CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bellomo R, Ronco C, Kellum JA et al (2004) Acute renal failure-definition, outcome measures, animal models, fluid therapy and information technology needs: the Second International Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Group. Crit Care 8:R204–R212CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Bezerra CT, Vaz Cunha LC, Liborio AB (2013) Defining reduced urine output in neonatal ICU: importance for mortality and acute kidney injury classification. Nephrol Dial Transplant 28:901–909CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Blinder JJ, Goldstein SL, Lee VV et al (2012) Congenital heart surgery in infants: effects of acute kidney injury on outcomes. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 143:368–374CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bueva A, Guignard JP (1994) Renal function in preterm neonates. Pediatr Res 36:572–577CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Burney K, Bradley M, Buckley A et al (2006) Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder: a pictorial review. Australas Radiol 50:412–418CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chand DH, Brier M, Strife CF (2005) Comparison of vascular access type in pediatric hemodialysis patients with respect to urea clearance, anemia management, and serum albumin concentration. Am J Kidney Dis 45:303–308CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Coulthard MG, Keir MJ (2006) Reflux nephropathy in kidney transplants, demonstrated by dimercaptosuccinic acid scanning. Transplantation 82:205–210CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cransberg K, Smits JM, Offner G et al (2006) Kidney transplantation without prior dialysis in children: the Eurotransplant experience. Am J Transplant 6:1858–1864CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Dharnidharka VR, Fiorina P, Harmon WE (2014) Kidney transplantation in children. N Engl J Med 371:549–558CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. El Nahas AM, Bello AK (2005) Chronic kidney disease: the global challenge. Lancet 365:331–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. ESCAPE Trial Group, Wühl E, Trivelli A, Picca S et al (2009) Strict blood-pressure control and progression of renal failure in children. N Engl J Med 361:1639–1651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Filler G, Webb NJ, Milford DV et al (2005) Four-year data after pediatric renal transplantation: a randomized trial of tacrolimus vs. cyclosporin microemulsion. Pediatr Transplant 9:498–503CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Fischbach M, Edefonti A, Schröder C et al (2005) Hemodialysis in children: general practical guidelines. Pediatr Nephrol 20:1054–1066CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Fischbach M, Terzic J, Laugel V et al (2003) Measurement of hydrostatic intraperitoneal pressure: a useful tool for the improvement of dialysis dose prescription. Pediatr Nephrol 18:976–980CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Fivush BA, Jabs K, Neu A et al (1998) Chronic renal insufficiency in children and adolescents: the 1996 annual report of NAPRTACS. Pediatr Nephrol 12:328–337CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Fogo AB (2006) Progression versus regression of chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 21:281–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Fontaine E, Gagnadoux MF, Niaudet P et al (1998) Renal transplantation in children with augmentation cystoplasty: long-term results. J Urol 159:2110–2113CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gonzales Celedon C, Bitsori M, Tullus K (2007) Progression of chronic renal failure in children with dysplastic kidneys. Pediatr Nephrol 22:1014–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Grijseels EW, van-Hornstra PT, Govaerts LC et al (2011) Outcome of pregnancies complicated by oligohydramnios or anhydramnios of renal orign. Prenat Diagn 31:1039–1045CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gubler MC (2014) Renal tubular dysgenesis. Pediatr Nephrol 29:51–59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Gupta BD, Sharma P, Bagla J et al (2005) Renal failure in asphyxiated neonates. Indian Pediatr 42:928–934PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ho J, Dart A, Rigatto C (2014) Proteomics in acute kidney injury-current status and future promise. Pediatr Nephrol 29:163–171CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hogg RJ, Furth S, Lemley KV et al (2003) National Kidney Foundation’s kidney outcomes quality initiative clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease in children and adolescents: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Pediatrics 111:1416–1421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jetton JG, Askenazi DJ (2014) Acute kidney injury in the neonate. Clin Perinatol 41:487–502CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kellum JA, Lameire N (2013) Diagnosis, evaluation, and management of acute kidney injury: a KDIGO summary (Part 1). Crit Care 17:204–218CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Kemper MJ, Müller-Wiefel DE (2007) Prognosis of antenatally diagnosed oligohydramnios of renal origin. Eur J Pediatr 166:393–398CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kemper MJ, van Husen M (2014) Renal osteodystrophy in children: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. Curr Opin Pediatr 26:180–186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO), Acute Kidney Injury Work Group (2012) KDIGO clinical practice guideline for acute kidney injury. Kidney Int 2(Suppl):1–138Google Scholar
  36. KDIGO (2013) Clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 3(Suppl):19–62Google Scholar
  37. Klaassen I, Neuhaus TJ, Mueller-Wiefel DE et al (2007) Antenatal oligohydramnios of renal origin: long-term outcome. Nephrol Dial Transplant 22:432–439CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Klaus G, Watson A, Edefonti A et al (2006) Prevention and treatment of renal osteodystrophy in children on chronic renal failure: European guidelines. Pediatr Nephrol 21:151–159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Koralkar R, Ambalavanan N, Lwvitan EB et al (2011) Acute kidney injury reduces survival in very low birth weight infants. Pediatr Res 69:354–358CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Krawczeski CD, Woo JG, Wang Y et al (2011) Neutrophil gelatinase-assiciated lipocalin concentrations predict development of acute kidney injury in neonates and children after cardiopulmonary bypass. J Pediatr 158:1009–1015;e1CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Lameire N, Van Biesen W, Vanholder R (2005) Acute renal failure. Lancet 365:417–430CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Mitsnefes MM (2012) Cardiovascular disease in children with chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 23:578–585CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Mynarek M, Schober T, Behrends U et al. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease after pediatric solid organ transplantation. Clin Dev Immunol. 2013; Article ID 814974.Google Scholar
  44. North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies. 2010 annual transplant report. https://web.emmes.com/study/ped/annlrept/2010_Report.pdf.
  45. Neu AM, Ho PL, McDonald RA et al (2002) Chronic dialysis in children and adolescents. The 2001 NAPRTCS annual report. Pediatr Nephrol 17:656–663CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Oh J, Wunsch R, Turzer M et al (2002) Advanced coronary and carotid arteriopathy in young adults with childhood onset chronic renal failure. Circulation 106:100–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pape L, Ehrich JH, Offner G (2007) Young for young! Mandatory age-matched exchange of paediatric kidneys. Pediatr Nephrol 22:477–479CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Parekh RS, Gidding SS (2005) Cardiovascular complications in pediatric end-stage renal disease. Pediatr Nephrol 20:125–131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Ramage IJ, Bailie A, Tyerman KS et al (2005) Vascular access survival in children and young adults receiving long-term hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 45:708–714CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Rees L (2013) Infant dialysis-what makes is special? Nat Rev Nephrol 9:15–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Rigamonti W, Capizzi A, Zacchello G et al (2005) Kidney transplantation into bladder augmentation or urinary diversion: long-term results. Transplantation 80:1435–1440CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Rödl S, Marschitz I, Mache CJ et al (2012) Hemodiafiltration in infants with complications during peritoneal dialysis. Artif Organs 96:590–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rose GM, Conley SB (1989) Unilateral hydrothorax in small children on chronic continuous peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 3:89–91CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Scarsbrook AF, Warakaulle DR, Dattani M et al (2005) Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder: the spectrum of imaging appearances. Clin Radiol 60:47–55CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Schmitt CP, Bakkaloglu SA, Klaus G et al (2011) Solutions for peritoneal dialysis in children: recommendations by the European Pediatric Dialysis Working Group. Pediatr Nephrol 26:1137–1147CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Seikaly MG, Ho PL, Emmett L et al (2003) Chronic renal insufficiency in children: the 2001 annual report on the NAPRTCS. Pediatr Nephrol 18:796–804CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Shroff R, Stefanidis CJ, Askiti V et al (2013) Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in children on chronic PD: a survey from the European Paediatric Dialysis Working Group. Nephrol Dial Transplant 28:1908–1914CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Soergel M, Kirschstein M, Busch C et al (1997) Oscillometric 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure values in healthy children and adolescents. A multicenter trial including 1,141 subjects. J Pediatr 129:178–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Solez K, Racusen LC (2012) The Banff classification revisited. Kidney Int 83:201–206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Spaggiari E, Heidet L, Grange G et al (2012) Prognosis and outcome of pregnancies exposed to renin-angiotensin system blockers. Prenat Diagn 32:1071–1076CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Thomas ME, Blaine C, Dawnay A et al (2014) The definition of acute kidney injury and its use in practice. Kidney Int 87(1):62–73CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Vieux R, Hascoet J-M, Merdariu D et al (2010) Glomerular filtration rate reference values in very preterm infants. Pediatrics 125:e1186–e1192CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Warady BA, Alexander SR, Hossli S et al (1996) Peritoneal membrane transport function in children receiving long-term dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 7:2385–2391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Warady BA, Fivush B, Andreoli SP et al (1999) Longitudinal evaluation of transport kinetics in children receiving peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 13:571–576CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Warady BA, Bakkaloglu S, Newland J (2012) Consensus guidelines for the prevention and treatment of catheter-related infections and peritonitis in pediatric patients receiving peritoneal dialysis: 2012 update. Perit Dial Int 32:529–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Warady BA, Silverstein DM (2014) Management of anemia with erythropoietic-stimulating agents in children with chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol 29:1498–1505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Watson AR, Hayes WN, Vondrak K et al (2013) Factors influencing choice of renal replacement therapy in European Pediatric Nephrology Units. Pediatr Nephrol 28:2361–2368CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Wikstad I, Celsi G, Larsson L et al (1988) Kidney function in adults born with unilateral renal agenesis or nephrectomized in childhood. Pediatr Nephrol 2:177–182CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Yong D, Qing WQ, Hua L et al (2006) Association of angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and IgA nephropathy: a meta-analysis. Am J Nephrol 26:511–518CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ekkehard Ring
    • 1
  • Holger Hubmann
    • 1
  • Birgit Acham-Roschitz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Division of General PediatricsUniversity Hospital GrazGrazAustria

Personalised recommendations