Urolithiasis and Nephrocalcinosis

  • Bernd HoppeEmail author
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis (NC) are the two types of calcification associated with the urinary tract. Urolithiasis is macroscopic calcification in the urinary collecting system. Urinary stones are composed out of crystal agglomerations, sometimes mixed with proteins. Stones are formed on the renal papillae by retention of lithogenic particles (Randall’s plaques), either by obstruction or by adherence to damaged renal epithelium (Coe et al. 2010; Evan et al. 2007; Randall 1937). This takes place when urine is supersaturated with regard to stone promoting factors, e.g. increased calcium or oxalate excretion, or because the inhibitor activity is reduced, e.g. low citrate excretion (Karlowicz and Adelman 1995; Verkoelen et al. 1998).


  1. Akhan O, Özmen MN, Coskun M, Özen S, Akata D, Saatci Ü (1995) Systemic oxalosis: pathognomonic renal and specific extrarenal findings on US and CT. Pediatr Radiol 25:15–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alon US (1997) Nephrocalcinosis. Pediatrics 9:160–165Google Scholar
  3. Alon US, Scagliotti D, Garola RE (1994) Nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in infants with congestive heart failure treated with furosemide. J Pediatr 125:149–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ammenti A, Neri E, Agistri R et al (2006) Idiopathic hypercalciuria in infants with renal stones. Pediatr Nephrol 21(12):1901–1903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arikyants N, Sarkissian A, Hesse A et al (2007) Xanthinuria type I – a rare cause of urolithiasis. Pediatr Nephrol 22(2):310–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Avni EF, Spehl-Robberecht M, Lebrun D, Gomes H, Garel L (1983) Pathologie Tubulaire Aiguë Transitoire Chez Le Nourrisson: Aspect Échographique Charactéristique. Ann Radiol 26:175–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Basaklar AC, Kale N (1991) Experiences with childhood urolithiasis (report of 196 cases). Br J Urol 67:203–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beck BB, Baasner A, Buescher A et al (2013) Novel findings in patients with primary hyperoxaluria type III and implications for advanced molecular testing strategies. Eur J Hum Genet 21(2):162–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Belostosky R, Seboun E, Idelson GH, Milliner DS, Becker-Cohen R, Rinat C (2010) Mutations in DHDPSL are responsible for primary hyperoxaluria type III. Am J Hum Genet 87:392–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berdon WE, Schwartz RH, Becker J, Baker DH (1969) Tamm-Horsfall proteinuria. Radiology 92:714–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boddy SA, Duffy PG, Barratt TM, Whitfield HN (1988) Hyperoxaluria and renal calculi in children. The role of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Proc R Soc Med 81:604–605Google Scholar
  12. Breslau NA (1994) Pathogenesis and management of hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis. Miner Electrolyte Metab 20(6):328–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bruwer A (1979) Primary renal calculi: Anderson-Carr-Randall progression? AJR Am J Roentgenol 132:751–758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brühl P, Hesse A, Gu KLR (1987) Harnsteinerkrankungen im Kindesalter: ƒtiologie, Diagnostik, Therapie und Metaphylaxe. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  15. Bruziere J, Roubach L (1981) Urinary lithiasis in children. Eur J Urol 7:134–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Buckalew VM Jr (1989) Nephrolithiasis in renal tubular acidosis. J Urol 141(3 Pt 2):731–737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burton EM, Hanna JD, Mercado-Deane MG (1995) Nephrocalcinosis in a child with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and a prolapsing ectopic ureterocele. Pediatr Radiol 25:462–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cameron JS, Moro F, Simmonds HA (1993) Gout, uric acid and purine metabolism in paediatric nephrology. Pediatr Nephrol 7(1):105–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cameron MA, Sakhaee K, Moe OW (2005) Nephrolithiasis in children. Pediatr Nephrol 20(11):1587–1592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Campfield T, Braden G (1989) Urinary oxalate excretion by very low birth weight infants receiving parenteral nutrition. Pediatrics 84(5):860–863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cebellos-Picot I, Perignon JL, Hamet M, Daudon M, Kamoun P (1992) 2.8 dihydroxyadenine urolithiasis, an underdiagnosed disease. Lancet 339:1050–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Choi Y, Koo JW, Ha IS et al (1993) Partial hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase deficiency in two Korean sisters – a new mutation. Pediatr Nephrol 7:739–740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chow GK, Streem SB (1996) Medical treatment of cystinuria: results of contemporary clinical practice. J Urol 156:1576–1578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cochat P, Rumsby G (2013) Primary hyperoxaluria. N Engl J Med 369(7):649–658. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1301564 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cochat P, Hulton SA, Acquaviva C et al (2012) Primary hyperoxaluria type 1: indications for screening and guidance for diagnosis and treatment. Nephrol Dial Transplant 27(5):1729–1736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Coe FL, Parks JH, Asplin JR (1992) The pathogenesis and treatment of kidney stones. N Engl J Med 327:1141–1152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coe FL, Evan AP, Worcester EM et al (2010) Three pathways for human kidney stone formation. Urol Res 38(3):147–160PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cote G, Jequier S, Kaplan P (1989) Increased renal medullary echogenicity in patients with Williams syndrome. Pediatr Radiol 19:481–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cramer B, Husa L, Pushpanathan C (1998a) Nephrocalcinosis in rabbits – correlation of ultrasound, computed tomography, pathology and renal function. Pediatr Radiol 28:9–13PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cramer B, Husa L, Pushpanathan C (1998b) Pattern and permanence of phosphate-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbits. Pediatr Radiol 28:14–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cramer BC, Ozere R, Andrews W (1990) Renal stone formation following medical treatment of renal candidiasis. Pediatr Radiol 21:43–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cregeen DP, Rumsby G (1999) Recent developments in our understanding of primary hyperoxaluria type 2. J Am Soc Neprol 10:348–350Google Scholar
  33. Damiani D, Aguiar CH, Bueno VS et al (1998) Primary hyperparathyroidism in children: patient report and review of literature. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 11:83–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Danpure CJ (1989) Recent advances in the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of primary hyperoxaluria type I. J Inherit Metab Dis 12:210–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Danpure CJ (2000) Genetic disorders and urolithiasis. Urol North Clin Am 27:287–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Daudon M, Jungers P, Bazin D (2008) Peculiar morphology of stones in primary hyperoxaluria. N Engl J Med 359:100–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Davies M (1989) High dose vitamin D therapy: indications, benefits and hazards. Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl 30:81–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Dello Strologo L, Pras E, Pontesilli C et al (2002) Comparison between SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 cystinuria patients and carriers: a need for a new classification. J Am Soc Nephrol 13(10):2547–2553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. De Santo NG, Iorio BD, Capasso G et al (1992) Population based data on urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium, oxalate, phosphate and uric acid in children from Cimitile (southern Italy). Pediatr Nephrol 6:149–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dick PT, Shuckett BM, Tang B, Daneman A, Kooh SW (1999) Observer reliability in grading nephrocalcinosis on ultrasound examinations in children. Pediatr Radiol 29:68–72PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Downing GJ, Egelhoff JC, Daily DK, Alon U (1991) Furosemide-related renal calcifications in the premature infant. Pediatr Radiol 21:563–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Durkee CT, Balcom A (2006) Surgical management of urolithiasis. Pediatr Clin North Am 53:465–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dyer RB, Chen MYM, Zagoria RJ (1998) Abnormal calcifications in the urinary tract. Radiographics 18:1405–1424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dyer RB, Zagoria RJ (1992) Radiological patterns of mineralization as predictor of urinary stone etiology, associated pathology, and therapeutic outcome. J Stone Dis 4:272–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. El-Damanhoury H, Bürger R, Hohenfellner R (1991) Surgical aspects of urolithiasis in children. Pediatr Nephrol 5:339–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Evan AP, Coe FK, Lingeman JE et al (2005) Insights on the pathology of kidney stone formation. Urol Res 33:383–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Evan AP, Lingeman J, Coe F et al (2007) Renal histopathology of stone-forming patients with distal renal tubular acidosis. Kidney Int 71(8):795–801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Font-Llitjos M, Jimenez-Vidal M, Bisceglia L et al (2005) New insights into cystinuria: 40 new mutations, genotype-phenotype correlation, and digenic inheritance causing partial phenotype. J Med Genet 42:58–68PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Forget S, Patriquin HB, Dubois J, Lafortune M, Merouani A, Paradis K, Russo P (1999) The kidney in children with tyrosinemia: sonographic, CT and biochemical findings. Pediatr Radiol 29:104–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fourman J (1959) Two distinct forms of experimental nephrocalcinosis in the rat. Br J Exp Pathol 60:463–464Google Scholar
  51. Gambaro G, Vezzoli G, Casari G et al (2004) Genetics of hypercalciuria and calcium nephrolithiasis: from the rare monogenic to the common polygenic forms. Am J Kidney Dis 44(6):963–986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gückel C, Benz-Bohm G, Roth B (1989) Die Nephrokalzinose im Kindesalter. Sonographische Befunde und Differentialdiagnostik. Fortschr Röntgenstr 151:301–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ghazali S, Barratt TM (1974) Urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium in children. Arch Dis Child 49:97–101PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Habbig S, Beck BB, Hoppe B (2011) Nephrocalcinosis and urolithiasis in children. Kidney Int 80(12):1278–1291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hamm LL (1990) Renal handling of citrate. Kidney Int 38:728–735PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hernanz-Schulman M (1991) Hyperechoic renal medullary pyramids in infants and children. Radiology 181:9–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hess B, Nakagawa Y, Parks JH, Coe FL (1991) Molecular abnormality of Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein in calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Am J Physiol 260(4 Part 2):F569–F578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hess B, Metzger RM, Ackermann D, Montandon A, Jaeger P (1994) Infection-induced stone formation in a renal allograft. Am J Kidney Dis 24(5):868–872PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hesse A, Classen A, Knoll M, Timmerman F, Vahlensieck W (1986) Dependance of urine composition on the age and sex of healthy subjects. Clin Chim Acta 160:79–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hesse A, Vahlensieck W (1986) Loading tests for diagnosis of metabolic anomalies in urinary stone formers. Int J Urol Nephrol 18(1):45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hicks NR, Cranston DW, Charlton CAC (1983) Fifteen year follow up of hyperoxaluria type II. N Engl J Med 309:796 (letter)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hoppe B, Hesse A, Neuhaus T et al (1993a) Urinary saturation and nephrocalcinosis in preterm infants: effect of parenteral nutrition. Arch Dis Child 69:299–303PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hoppe B, Neuhaus T, Superti A, Leumann E (1993b) Hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis, a feature of Wilson’s disease. Nephron 65:460–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hoppe B, Jahnen A, Bach D, Hesse A (1997) Urinary calcium-oxalate saturation in healthy infants and children. J Urol 158:557–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hoppe B, Hesse A, Brömme S, Rietschel E, Michalk D (1998) Urinary excretion substances in patients with cystic fibrosis: risk of urolithiasis? Pediatr Nephrol 12:275–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hoppe B, von Unruh GE, Blank G et al (2005) Absorptive hyperoxaluria leads to an increased risk of urolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis in cystic fibrosis. Am J Kidney Dis 46(3):440–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hoppe B, Langman CB (2003) A United States survey on diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of primary hyperoxaluria. Pediatr Nephrol 18(10):986–991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hoppe B, Leumann A, Milliner DS (2008) Urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis in childhood. In: Geary DF, Schaefer F (eds) Comprehensive pediatric nephrology. Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 499–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hoppe B, Kemper M (2010) Diagnostic examination of the child with urolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis. Pediatr Nephrol 25(3):403–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hoppe B (2012) An update an primary hyperoxaluria. Nat Rev Nephrol 8(8):467–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Horsford J, Saadi I, Raelson J, Goodyer PR, Rozen R (1996) Molecular genetics of cystinuria in French Canadians: identification of four novel mutations in type I patients. Kidney Int 49(5):1401–1406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hufnagle KG, Khan SN, Penn D, Cacciarelli A, Williams P (1982) Renal calcifications: a complication of long term furosemide therapy in preterm infants. Pediatrics 70:360–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hueppelshaeuser R, von Unruh GE, Habbig S et al (2012) Enteric hyperoxaluria, recurrent urolithiasis, and systemic oxalosis in patients with Crohn’s disease. Pediatr Nephrol 27(7):1103–1109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Jacinto JS, Modanlou HD, Crade MC, Strauss AA, Bosu SK (1988) Renal calcification incidence in very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 81:31–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Jacob DE, Grohe B, Geßner M, Beck BB, Hoppe B (2013) Kidney stones in primary hyperoxaluria: new lessons learnt. PLoS One 8(8):e70617PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jacobus CH, Holick MF, Shao Q et al (1992) Hypervitaminosis D associated with drinking milk. N Engl J Med 326(18):1173–1177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jequier S, Kaplan BS (1991) Echogenic renal pyramids in children. J Clin Ultrasound 19:85–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kalorin CM, Zabinski A, Okpareke I et al (2009) Pediatric urinary stone disease does age matter? J Urol 181(5):2267–2271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kamitsuka MD, Peloquin D (1991) Renal calcification after dexamethasone in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Lancet 337:626 (letter)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Karlowicz MG, Adelman RD (1995) Renal calcification in the first year of life. Pediatr Clin North Am 42:1397–1413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Katz ME, Karlowicz MG, Adelman RD, Werner AL, Solhaug MJ (1994) Nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight neonates: sonographic patterns, histologic characteristics, and clinical risk factors. J Ultrasound Med 13:777–782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Knoll T, Zöllner A, Wendt-Nordahl G et al (2005) Cystinuria in childhood and adolescence: recommendations for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. Pediatr Nephrol 20(1):19–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kopp N, Leumann E (1995) Changing pattern of primary hyperoxaluria in Switzerland. Nephrol Dial Transplant 10:2224–2227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Laufer J, Boichis H (1989) Urolithiasis in children: current medical management. Pediatr Nephrol 3:317–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Latta K, Brodehl J (1990) Primary hyperoxaluria type I. Eur J Pediatr 149:518–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Leumann EP, Niederwieser A, Fanconi A (1987) New aspects of infantile oxalosis. Pediatr Nephrol 1:531–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Leumann E, Hoppe B, Neuhaus T (1993) Management of primary hyperoxaluria: efficacy of oral citrate administration. Pediatr Nephrol 7:207–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Libenson MH, Kaye EM, Rosman NP, Gilmore HE (1999) Acetazolamide and furosemide for posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus of the newborn. Pediatr Neurol 20:185–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lloyd SE, Pearce SH, Fisher SE et al (1996) A common molecular basis for three inherited kidney stone diseases. Nature 379(6564):398–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lopez M, Hoppe B (2010) History, epidemiology and regional diversities of urolithiasis. Pediatr Nephrol 25(1):49–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Marangella M, Petrarulo M, Vitale C, Cosseddu D, Linari F (1992) Plasma and urine glycolate assays for differentiating the hyperoxaluria syndromes. J Urol 148:986–989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Marangella M, Petrarulo M, Cosseddu D (1994) End-stage renal failure in primary hyperoxaluria type II. N Engl J Med 330:1690 (letter)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Miller MA, Gallicano K, Dascal A, Mendelson J (1993) Sulfadiazine urolithiasis during antitoxoplasma therapy. Drug Invest 5:334–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Miller LA, Stapleton FB (1985) Urinary citrate excretion in children with hypercalciuria. J Pediatr 107(2):263–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Milliner DS, Murphy ME (1993) Urolithiasis in pediatric patients. Mayo Clin Proc 68:313–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mindell HJ, Cochran ST (1994) Current perspectives in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary stone disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol 163:1314–1315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Monico CG, Milliner DS (1999) Hyperoxaluria and urolithiasis in young children: an atypical presentation. J Endourol 13:633–636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Monico CG, Rossetti S, Belostotsky R et al (2011) Primary hyperoxaluria type III gene HOGA1 (formerly DHDPSL) as a possible risk factor for idiopathic calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 6(9):2289–2295PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Myracle MR, McGahan JP, Goetzman BW, Adelman RD (1986) Ultrasound diagnosis of renal calcification in infants on chronic furosemide therapy. J Clin Ultrasound 14:281–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Novak TE, Lakshmanan Y, Trock BJ et al (2009) Sex prevalence of pediatric kidney stone disease in the United States: an epidemiologic investigation. Urology 74(1):104–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Navarro O, Daneman A, Kooh SW (1998) Asymmetric medullary nephrocalcinosis in two children. Pediatr Radiol 28:687–690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Nayir A, Kadioglu A, Sirin A, Emre S, Tonguc E, Bilge I (1995) Causes of increased renal medullary echogenicity in Turkish children. Pediatr Nephrol 9:729–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Neuhaus T, Belzer T, Blau N, Hoppe B, Sidhu H, Leumann E (2000) Urinary oxalate excretion in urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. Arch Dis Child 82:322–326PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Oguzkurt L, Karabulut N, Haliloglu M, Ünal B (1997) Medullary nephrocalcinosis associated with vesicoureteral reflux. Br J Radiol 70:850–851PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Oner S, Oto A, Tekgul S et al (2004) Comparison of spiral CT and US in the evaluation of pediatric urolithiasis. JBR-BTR 87(5):219–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Palmer JS, Donaher ER, O’Riordan MA et al (2005) Diagnosis of pediatric urolithiasis: role of ultrasound and computerized tomography. J Urol 174:1413–1416PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Patriquin H, Robitaille P (1986) Renal calcium deposition in children: sonographic demonstration of the Anderson-Carr progression. AJR Am J Roentgenol 146:1253–1256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Pfitzer A, Nelle M, Rohrschneider W, Linderkamp O, Tröger J (1998) Inzidenz nephrokalzinosetypischer Sonographiebefunde bei Frühgeborenen während enteraler Kalzium- und Phosphatgabe. Z Geburtsh Neonatol 202:159–163Google Scholar
  109. Pietrow PK, Pope JC, Adams MC et al (2002) Clinical outcome of pediatric stone disease. J Urol 167:670–673PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pope JC, Trusler LA, Klein AM, Walsh WF, Yared A, Brock JW (1996) The natural history of nephrocalcinosis in premature infants treated with loop diuretics. J Urol 156:709–712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Preminger GM, Sakhaee K, Skurla C, Pak CYC (1985) Prevention of recurrent calcium stone formation with potassium citrate therapy in patients with distal renal tubular acidosis. J Urol 134:20–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Purdue PE, Lumb MJ, Fox M et al (1991) Characterisation and chromosomal mapping of a genomic clone encoding human alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase. Genomics 10:34–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ragavan VV, Smith JE, Bilezikian JP (1982) Vitamin A toxicity and hypercalcemia. Am J Med Sci 283(3):161–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Raj GV, Bennett RT, Preminger GM, King LR, Wiener JS (1999) The incidence of nephrolithiasis in patients with spinal neural tube defects. J Urol 162:1238–1242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Randall A (1937) The origin and growth of renal calculi. Ann Surg 105(6):1009–1027PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Rausch HP, Hanefeld F, Kaufmann HJ (1984) Medullary nephrocalcinosis and pancreatic calcifications demonstrated by ultrasound and CT in infants after treatment with ACTH. Radiology 153:105–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Restaino I, Kaplan BS, Stanley C, Baker L (1993) Nephrolithiasis, hypocitraturia, and a distal renal tubular acidification defect in type I glycogen storage disease. J Pediatr 122(3):392–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Riedel TJ, Knight J, Murray MS, Milliner DS, Holmes RP, Lowther WT (2012) 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase inactivity in primary hyperoxaluria type 3 and glyoxylate reductase inhibition. Biochim Biophys Acta 1822(10):1544–1552PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Rönnefarth G, Misselwitz J (2000) Nephrocalcinosis in children: a retrospective survey. Members of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für pädiatrische Nephrologie. Pediatr Nephrol 14(10-11):1016–1021PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Ryall RL (1996) Glycosaminoglycans, proteins, and stone formation: adult themes and child’s play. Pediatr Nephrol 10(5):656–666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sas DJ, Hulsey TC, Shatat IF et al (2010) Increasing incidence of kidney stones in children evaluated in the emergency department. J Pediatr 157(1):132–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Schell-Feith EA, van Holthe KJE, Conneman N et al (2000) Etiology of nephrocalcinosis in preterm neonates: association of nutritional intake and urinary parameters. Kidney Int 58:2102–2110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Shultz PK, Strife JL, Strife CF, McDaniel JD (1991) Hyperechoic renal medullary pyramids in infants and children. Radiology 181:163–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Schlingmann KP, Kaufmann M, Weber S et al (2011) Mutations in CYP24A1 and idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia. N Engl J Med 365(5):410–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sidhu H, Hoppe B, Hesse A et al (1998) Absence of Oxalobacter formigenes in cystic fibrosis patients: a risk factor for hyperoxaluria. Lancet 352:1026–1029PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sikora P, Roth B, Kribs A et al (2003) Hypocitraturia is one of the major risk factors for nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Kidney Int 63:2194–2199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sliman GA, Winters WD, Shaw DW, Avner ED (1995) Hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis in the oculocerebrorenal syndrome. J Urol 153(4):1244–1246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Smith RC, Rosenfield AT, Choe KA et al (1995) Acute flank pain: comparison of non-contrast-enhanced CT and intravenous urography. Radiology 194:789–794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sonntag J, Schaub J (1997) Oxalate excretion during the first 7 weeks in very-low-birth-weight infants. Biol Neonate 71:277–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Spivacow FR, Negri AL, del Valle EE et al (2010) Clinical and metabolic risk factor evaluation in young adults with kidney stones. Int Urol Nephrol 42(2):471–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Stapleton FB (1983) Idiopathic hypercalciuria in children. Semin Nephrol 3(2):116–124Google Scholar
  132. Stapleton FB (1996a) Clinical approach to children with urolithiasis. Semin Nephrol 3:116–124Google Scholar
  133. Stapleton FB (1996b) Clinical approach to children with urolithiasis. Semin Nephrol 16(5):389–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Starinsky R, Vardi O, Batasch D, Goldberg M (1995) Increased renal medullary echogenicity in neonates. Pediatr Radiol 25:43–45Google Scholar
  135. Strouse PJ, Bates DG, Bloom DA, Goodsitt MM (2002) Non-contrast thin-section helical CT of urinary tract calculi in children. Pediatr Radiol 32(5):326–332PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Taylor A, Sherman NH, Norman ME (1995) Nephrocalcinosis in X-linked hypophosphatemia: effect of treatment versus disease. Pediatr Nephrol 9:173–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Williams HE, Wandzilak TE (1989) Oxalate synthesis, transport and the hyperoxaluric syndromes. J Urol 141:742–747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. VanDervoort K, Wiesen J, Frank R et al (2007) Urolithiasis in pediatric patients: a single center study of incidence, clinical presentation and outcome. J Urol 177(6):2300–2305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Verkoelen CF, van der Boom BG, Houtsmuller AB et al (1998) Increased calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal binding to injured renal tubular epithelial cells in culture. Am J Physiol 274:F958–F965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Vervaet BA, Verhulst A, D’Haese PC et al (2009) Nephrocalcinosis: new insights into mechanisms and consequences. Nephrol Dial Transplant 24(7):2030–2035PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Vezzoli G, Terranegra A, Arcidiacono T et al (2010) Calcium kidney stones are associated with a haplotype of the calcium-sensing receptor gene regulatory region. Nephrol Dial Transplant 25(7):2245–2252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Walther PC, Lamm D, Kaplan GW (1980) Pediatric urolithiases: a ten-year review. Pediatrics 65(6):1068–1072PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Zanchetta JR, Rodriguez G, Negir AL, del Valle E, Spivacow FR (1996) Bone mineral density in patients with hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis. Nephron 73:557–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Bonn, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric NephrologyBonnGermany

Personalised recommendations