Transthoracic Echocardiography: The Basic Views

  • Sonia NhieuEmail author


Bedside transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is a valuable, noninvasive, point-of-care diagnostic tool that can be used for cardiac evaluation of symptomatic or hemodynamically unstable patients. Use of TTE in the perioperative setting, emergency medicine or critical care patient population can provide new objective data and guide clinical management. The increasing availability of TTE and minimal training required to become competent makes the bedside TTE examination complementary to TEE.


Transthoracic echocardiography Cardiac ultrasound Basic views Bedside transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) Noninvasive 



Transthoracic echocardiography


Transesophageal echocardiography


Left ventricle


Focused cardiac ultrasound


American Society of Echocardiography


American College of Emergency Physicians


Pulseless electrical activity


Long axis


Left atrium


Left ventricular outflow tract


Right ventricle


Short axis


Inferior vena cava

Supplementary material

Video 14.1

Parasternal LAX view (AVI 58,276 kb)

Video 14.2

Parasternal SAX view of the AV (AVI 440,322 KB)

Video 14.3

Parasternal SAX basal view of the mitral valve (AVI 22,444 KB)

Video 14.4

Parasternal SAX mid-papillary view of the LV (AVI 41,569 KB)

Video 14.5

Apical four-chamber view (AVI 38,502 KB)

Video 14.6

Lack of respiratory variation in the IVC suggests that the patient is not fluid responsive (AVI 154,693 KB)

Video 14.7

Parasternal SAX view showing an obliterated LV cavity during systole, suggestive of hypovolemia (AVI 113,911 KB)

Video 14.8

Parasternal SAX view of a hemodynamically significant pericardial effusion (AVI 5,711 KB)

Video 14.9

Apical four-chamber view demonstrating the McConnell’s sign, an echocardiographic finding in which the apical RV is spared. This patient had an acute pulmonary embolus (AVI 34,376 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular Anesthesiology and Critical CareTexas Heart Institute at Baylor St. Luke’s Medical CenterHoustonUSA

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