Advertisement

The Role of Syndemic in Explaining Health Disparities Among Bisexual Men: A Blueprint for a Theoretically Informed Perspective

  • M. Reuel Friedman
  • Brian M. Dodge
Chapter
Part of the Social Disparities in Health and Health Care book series (SDHHC)

Abstract

Although studies have documented dramatic health disparities among bisexual men and women, relative to their exclusively homosexual and heterosexual counterparts, research on potential explanatory factors underlying these differences in health outcomes has lagged. In an attempt to frame future research on health among bisexual individuals, this review will interpret previous research on health and risk disparities among bisexual men, using the lens of Syndemic Theory. We review findings from studies on a wide range of health concerns (including adverse childhood events, psychosocial conditions, sexual risk behavior, incidence and prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and health behavior following an HIV diagnosis) in an attempt to provide theoretically-informed perspectives from which to further study health disparities among bisexual men and women in more nuanced ways. Though there is emerging research on syndemic disparities among bisexual women, this review centers on bisexual men due to the deeper vein of HIV-related research in this population.

Keywords

Bisexual men Men who have sex with men and women HIV/AIDS Intervention design Theory 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The lead author would like to thank his doctoral committee: Nina Markovic, Ron Stall, Tony Silvestre, and Chongyi Wei.  Portions of the material herein were previously presented in different form in the lead author’s doctoral dissertation: Friedman, M.R. (2013). HIV among men who have sex with men and women (MSMW): Prevalence estimates, acquisition and transmission risks, and implications for interventions (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh).  The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

References

  1. Agronick, G., O’Donnell, L., Stueve, A., Doval, A. S., Duran, R., & Vargo, S. (2004). Sexual behaviors and risks among bisexually- and gay-identified young Latino men. AIDS Behavior, 8(2), 185–197. doi: 10.1023/B:AIBE.0000030249.11679.d0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bacon, O., Lum, P., Hahn, J., Evans, J., Davidson, P., Moss, A., & Page-Shafer, K. (2006). Commercial sex work and risk of HIV infection among young drug-injecting men who have sex with men in San Francisco. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 33(4), 228–234. doi: 10.1097/01.olq.0000204914.91923.ad.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baral, S. D., Friedman, M. R., Geibel, S., Rebe, K., Bozhinov, B., Diouf, D., et al. (2015). Male sex workers: Practices, contexts, and vulnerabilities for HIV acquisition and transmission. The Lancet, 385(9964), 260–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernstein, K. T., Liu, K. L., Begier, E. M., Koblin, B., Karpati, A., & Murrill, C. (2008). Same-sex attraction disclosure to health care providers among New York City men who have sex with men: Implications for HIV testing approaches. Archives of Internal Medicine, 168(13), 1458–1464. doi: 10.1001/archinte.168.13.1458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biello, K. B., Colby, D., Closson, E., & Mimiaga, M. J. (2014). The syndemic condition of psychosocial problems and HIV risk among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City. Vietnam. AIDS and Behavior, 18(7), 1264–1271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Billy, J., Tanfer, K., Grady, W. R., & Klepinger, D. H. (1993). The sexual behavior of men in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives, 52–60.Google Scholar
  7. Binson, D., Michaels, S., Stall, R., Coates, T. J., Gagnon, J. H., & Catania, J. A. (1995). Prevalence and social distribution of men who have sex with men: United States and its urban centers. Journal of Sex Research, 32(3), 245–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blake, S. M., Ledsky, R., Lehman, T., Goodenow, C., Sawyer, R., & Hack, T. (2001). Preventing sexual risk behaviors among gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents: The benefits of gay-sensitive HIV instruction in schools. American Journal of Public Health, 91(6), 940–946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bockting, W., Miner, M., & Rosser, B. (2007). Latino men’s sexual behavior with transgender persons. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36(6), 778–786. doi: 10.1007/s10508-006-9133-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bontempo, D. E., & d’Augelli, A. R. (2002). Effects of at-school victimization and sexual orientation on lesbian, gay, or bisexual youths’ health risk behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 30(5), 364–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boyer, D. (1989). Male prostitution and homosexual identity. Journal of Homosexuality, 17(1–2), 151–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Branson, B. M. (1998). Home sample collection tests for HIV infection. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280(19), 1699–1701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chu, S. Y., Peterman, T. A., Doll, L. S., Buehler, J. W., & Curran, J. W. (1992). AIDS in bisexual men in the United States: Epidemiology and transmission to women. American Journal of Public Health, 82(2), 220–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cochran, S. D., & Mays, V. M. (2009). Burden of psychiatric morbidity among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals in the California Quality of Life Survey. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(3), 647–658. doi: 10.1037/a0016501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coker, T. R., Austin, S. B., & Schuster, M. A. (2010). The health and health care of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents. Annual Review of Public Health, 31, 457–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Corliss, H. L., Rosario, M., Wypij, D., Fisher, L. B., & Austin, S. B. (2008). Sexual orientation disparities in longitudinal alcohol use patterns among adolescents: Findings from the Growing Up Today Study. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 162(11), 1071–1078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Davila, Y. R. (2000). Hispanic women and AIDS: Gendered risk factors and clinical implications. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 21(6), 635–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Diaz, R. M. (2013). Latino gay men and HIV: Culture, sexuality, and risk behavior. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Diaz, T., Chu, S. Y., Frederick, M., Hermann, P., Levy, A., Mokotoff, E., et al. (1993). Sociodemographics and HIV risk behaviors of bisexual men with AIDS: Results from a multistate interview project. AIDS, 7(9), 1227–1232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dodge, B., Sandfort, T., & Firestein, B. A. (2007). A review of mental health research on bisexual individuals when compared to homosexual and heterosexual individuals. Becoming Visible: Counseling Bisexuals Across the Lifespan (pp. 28–51).Google Scholar
  21. Dodge, B., Jeffries, W. L., & Sandfort, T. G. (2008a). Beyond the down low: Sexual risk, protection, and disclosure among at-risk black men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW). Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37(5), 683–696. doi: 10.1007/s10508-008-9356-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dodge, B., Reece, M., & Gebhard, P. H. (2008b). Kinsey and beyond: past, present, and future considerations for research on male bisexuality. Journal of Bisexuality, 8(3–4), 175–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dodge, B., Schnarrs, P. W., Goncalves, G., Malebranche, D., Martinez, O., Reece, M., et al. (2012a). The significance of privacy and trust in providing health-related services to behaviorally bisexual men in the United States. AIDS Education and Prevention, 24(3), 242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dodge, B., Schnarrs, P. W., Reece, M., Goncalves, G., Martinez, O., Nix, R., et al. (2012b). Community involvement among behaviourally bisexual men in the Midwestern USA: Experiences and perceptions across communities. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 14(9), 1095–1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dodge, B., Van Der Pol, B., Reece, M., Malebranche, D., Martinez, O., Goncalves, G., et al. (2012c). Rectal self-sampling in non-clinical venues for detection of sexually transmissible infections among behaviourally bisexual men. Sexual Health, 9(2), 190–191.Google Scholar
  26. Eisenberg, M., & Wechsler, H. (2003). Substance use behaviors among college students with same-sex and opposite-sex experience: Results from a national study. Addictive Behaviors, 28(5), 899–913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Finlinson, H., Colon, H. M., Robles, R. R., & Soto, M. (2006). Sexual identity formation and AIDS prevention: An exploratory study of non-gay-identified Puerto Rican MSM from working class neighborhoods. AIDS and Behavior, 10(5), 531–539. doi: 10.1007/s10461-006-9107-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Flores, S. A., Bakeman, R., Millett, G. A., & Peterson, J. L. (2009). HIV risk among bisexually and homosexually active racially diverse young men. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 36(5), 325–329. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181924201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Friedman, M. R., Coulter, R. W. S., Silvestre, A. J., Plankey, M. W., Shoptaw, S., Surkan, P. J., Teplin, L., & Stall, R. (2015). Someone to count on: the moderating influence of social support on the relationship between syndemics and HIV viral load. AIDS Impact (Amsterdam, Netherlands). Oral presentation.Google Scholar
  30. Friedman, M. R., Dodge, B., Schick, V., Herbenick, D., Hubach, R. D., Bowling, J., et al. (2014a). From bias to bisexual health disparities: Attitudes toward bisexual men and women in the United States. LGBT Health, 1(4), 309–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Friedman, M. R., Kurtz, S. P., Buttram, M. E., Wei, C., Silvestre, A. J., & Stall, R. (2014b). HIV risk among substance-using men who have sex with men and women (MSMW): Findings from South Florida. AIDS and Behavior, 18(1), 111–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Friedman, M. R., Stall, R., Silvestre, A. J., Mustanski, B., Shoptaw, S., Surkan, P. J., et al. (2014c). Stuck in the middle: Longitudinal HIV-related health disparities among men who have sex with men and women. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 66(2), 213–220.Google Scholar
  33. Friedman, M. R., Wei, C., Klem, M. L., Silvestre, A. J., Markovic, N., & Stall, R. (2014d). HIV infection and sexual risk among men who have sex with men and women (MSMW): A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 9(1), e87139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Friedman, M. R., Stall, R., Silvestre, A. J., Wei, C., Shoptaw, S., Herrick, A., et al. (2015). Effects of syndemics on HIV viral load and medication adherence in the multicentre AIDS cohort study. AIDS, 29(9), 1087–1096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Friedman, M. R., Plankey, M. W., Herrick, A. L., Silvestre, A. J., Shoptaw, S., Surkan, P. J., Teplin, L., & Stall, R. (2016). Bi now, bi later: Stability of bisexual behavior and viral bridging among men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). Archives of Sexual Behavior (under review).Google Scholar
  36. Friedman, M. S., Koeske, G. F., Silvestre, A. J., Korr, W. S., & Sites, E. W. (2006). The impact of gender-role nonconforming behavior, bullying, and social support on suicidality among gay male youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38(5), 621–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Friedman, M. S., Marshal, M. P., Guadamuz, T. E., Wei, C., Wong, C. F., Saewyc, E., et al. (2011a). A meta-analysis of disparities in childhood sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, and peer victimization among sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals. American Journal of Public Health, 101(8), 1481–1494. doi: 10.2105/ajph.2009.190009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Friedman, M. R., Guadamuz, T., & Marshal, M. (2011b). Male youth engaged in sex work: health disparities and outcomes in early adulthood. National HIV Prevention Conference, Atlanta, Georgia. Oral presentation.Google Scholar
  39. Garofalo, R., Wolf, R. C., Kessel, S., Palfrey, J., & DuRant, R. H. (1998). The association between health risk behaviors and sexual orientation among a school-based sample of adolescents. Pediatrics, 101(5), 895–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Goodenow, C., Netherland, J., & Szalacha, L. (2002). AIDS-related risk among adolescent males who have sex with males, females, or both: Evidence from a statewide survey. American Journal of Public Health, 92(2), 203–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gorbach, P. M., Murphy, R., Weiss, R. E., Hucks-Ortiz, C., & Shoptaw, S. (2009). Bridging sexual boundaries: men who have sex with men and women in a street-based sample in Los Angeles. Journal of Urban Health, 86(Suppl 1), 63–76. doi: 10.1007/s11524-009-9370-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Harawa, N. T., Williams, J. K., Ramamurthi, H. C., Manago, C., Avina, S., & Jones, M. (2008). Sexual behavior, sexual identity, and substance abuse among low-income bisexual and non-gay-identifying African American men who have sex with men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37(5), 748–762. doi: 10.1007/s10508-008-9361-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hays, R. B., Paul, J., Ekstrand, M., Kegeles, S. M., Stall, R., & Coates, T. J. (1997). Actual versus perceived HIV status, sexual behaviors and predictors of unprotected sex among young gay and bisexual men who identify as HIV-negative, HIV-positive and untested. AIDS, 11(12), 1495–1502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Heckman, T. G., Kelly, J. A., Bogart, L. M., Kalichman, S. C., & Rompa, D. J. (1999). HIV risk differences between African-American and white men who have sex with men. Journal of the National Medical Association, 91(2), 92–100.Google Scholar
  45. Herek, G. M. (2002). Heterosexuals’ attitudes toward bisexual men and women in the United States. Journal of Sex Research, 39(4), 264–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Herrick, A. L., Lim, S. H., Plankey, M. W., Chmiel, J. S., Guadamuz, T. T., Kao, U., et al. (2013). Adversity and syndemic production among men participating in the multicenter AIDS cohort study: A life-course approach. American Journal of Public Health, 103(1), 79–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Herrick, A. L., Egan, J. E., Coulter, R., Friedman, M. R., & Stall, R. (2014). Raising sexual minority youths’ health levels by incorporating resiliencies into health promotion efforts. American Journal of Public Health, 104(2), 206–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hightow, L. B., Leone, P. A., Macdonald, P. D., McCoy, S. I., Sampson, L. A., & Kaplan, A. H. (2006). Men who have sex with men and women: A unique risk group for HIV transmission on North Carolina college campuses. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 33(10), 585–593. doi: 10.1097/01.olq.0000216031.93089.68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Huhn, G. D., McIntyre, A. F., Broad, J. M., Holmes, S. W., Studzinski, A., Rabins, C., et al. (2008). Factors associated with newly diagnosed HIV among persons with concomitant sexually transmitted diseases. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 35(8), 731–737. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e31817f97a0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ibañez, G. E., Purcell, D. W., Stall, R., Parsons, J. T., & Gomez, C. A. (2005). Sexual risk, substance use, and psychological distress in HIV-positive gay and bisexual men who also inject drugs. AIDS, 19(Suppl 1), S49–S55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jeffries, W. L., & Dodge, B. (2007). Male bisexuality and condom use at last sexual encounter: results from a national survey. Journal of Sex Research, 44(3), 278–289. doi: 10.1080/00224490701443973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jeffries, W. L., Dodge, B., & Sandfort, T. (2008). Religion and spirituality among bisexual black men in the USA. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 10(5), 463–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jeffries, W. (2010). HIV testing among bisexual men in the United States. AIDS Education and Prevention, 22(4), 356–370. doi: 10.1521/aeap.2010.22.4.356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jones, K. T., Gray, P., Whiteside, Y. O., Wang, T., Bost, D., Dunbar, E., et al. (2008). Evaluation of an HIV prevention intervention adapted for black men who have sex with men. American Journal of Public Health, 98(6), 1043–1050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kalichman, S. C., Roffman, R. A., Picciano, J. F., & Bolan, M. (1998). Risk for HIV infection among bisexual men seeking HIV-prevention services and risks posed to their female partners. Health Psychology, 17(4), 320–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Knight, K. R., Shade, S. B., Purcell, D. W., Rose, C. D., Metsch, L. R., Latka, M. H., et al. (2007). Sexual transmission risk behavior reported among behaviorally bisexual HIV-positive injection drug-using men. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 46(Suppl 2), S80–87. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181576828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Latkin, C., Yang, C., Tobin, K., Penniman, T., Patterson, J., & Spikes, P. (2011). Differences in the social networks of African American men who have sex with men only and those who have sex with men and women. American Journal of Public Health, 101(10), e18–e23. doi: 10.2105/ajph.2011.300281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Laumann, E. O., Gagnon, J. H., Michael, R. T., & Michaels, S. (1994). The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  59. Leaver, C. A., Allman, D., Meyers, T., & Veugelers, P. J. (2004). Effectiveness of HIV prevention in Ontario, Canada: A multilevel comparison of bisexual men. American Journal of Public Health, 94(7), 1181–1185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Levin, E. M., Koopman, J. S., Aral, S. O., Holmes, K. K., & Foxman, B. (2009). Characteristics of men who have sex with men and women and women who have sex with women and men: Results from the 2003 Seattle Sex Survey. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 36(9), 541–546. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181a819db.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Li, A., Varangrat, A., Wimonsate, W., Chemnasiri, T., Sinthuwattanawibool, C., Phanuphak, P., et al. (2009). Sexual behavior and risk factors for HIV infection among homosexual and bisexual men in Thailand. AIDS Behavior, 13(2), 318–327. doi: 10.1007/s10461-008-9448-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lichtenstein, B. (2000). Secret encounters: black men, bisexuality, and AIDS in Alabama. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 14(3), 374–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lu, B., Viscidi, R. P., Lee, J., Wu, Y., Villa, L. L., Lazcano-Ponce, E., et al. (2011). Human papillomavirus (HPV) 6, 11, 16, and 18 seroprevalence is associated with sexual practice and age: Results from the multinational HPV Infection in Men Study (HIM Study). Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 20(5), 990–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mark, H. D., Sifakis, F., Hylton, J. B., Celentano, D. D., Mackellar, D. A., Valleroy, L. A., et al. (2005). Sex with women as a risk factor for herpes simplex virus type 2 among young men who have sex with men in Baltimore. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 32(11), 691–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Marshal, M. P., Friedman, M. S., Stall, R., King, K. M., Miles, J., Gold, M. A., et al. (2008). Sexual orientation and adolescent substance use: A meta-analysis and methodological review*. Addiction, 103(4), 546–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Marshal, M. P., Dietz, L. J., Friedman, M. S., Stall, R., Smith, H. A., McGinley, J., et al. (2011). Suicidality and depression disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(2), 115–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Martínez-Donate, A. P., Zellner, J. A., Fernández-Cerdeño, A., Sañudo, F., Hovell, M. F., Sipan, C.L., et al. (2009). Hombres Sanos: Exposure and response to a social marketing HIV prevention campaign targeting heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women. AIDS Education & Prevention, 21(Supplement B), 124–136.Google Scholar
  68. Martinez-Donate, A. P., Zellner, J. A., Sanudo, F., Fernandez-Cerdeno, A., Hovell, M. F., Sipan, C. L., et al. (2010). Hombres Sanos: Evaluation of a social marketing campaign for heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women. American Journal of Public Health, 100(12), 2532–2540. doi: 10.2105/ajph.2009.179648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Maulsby, C., Sifakis, F., German, D., Flynn, C. P., & Holtgrave, D. (2012). Partner characteristics and undiagnosed HIV seropositivity among men who have sex with men only (MSMO) and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) in Baltimore. AIDS Behavior, 16(3), 543–553. doi: 10.1007/s10461-011-0046-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. McKirnan, D. J., Stokes, J. P., Doll, L., & Burzette, R. G. (1995). Bisexually active men: Social characteristics and sexual behavior. Journal of Sex Research, 32(1), 65–76. doi: 10.1080/00224499509551775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McQuitty, M., McFarland, W., Kellogg, T. A., White, E., & Katz, M. H. (1999). Home collection versus publicly funded HIV testing in San Francisco: Who tests where? Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 21(5), 417–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Meyer, I. H. (1995). Minority stress and mental health in gay men. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36(1), 38–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129(5), 674–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Miller, M., Serner, M., & Wagner, M. (2005). Sexual diversity among black men who have sex with men in an inner-city community. Journal of Urban Health, 82(1 Suppl 1), i26–i34. doi: 10.1093/jurban/jti021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Millett, G., Malebranche, D., Mason, B., & Spikes, P. (2005). Focusing “down low”: Bisexual black men, HIV risk and heterosexual transmission. Journal of the National Medical Association, 97(7 Suppl), 52S–59S.Google Scholar
  76. Mills, T. C., Paul, J., Stall, R., Pollack, L., Canchola, J., Chang, Y., et al. (2004). Distress and depression in men who have sex with men: The Urban Men’s Health Study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(2), 278–285. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.161.2.278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mimiaga, M. J., Reisner, S. L., Cranston, K., Isenberg, D., Bright, D., Daffin, G., et al. (2009). Sexual mixing patterns and partner characteristics of black MSM in Massachusetts at increased risk for HIV infection and transmission. Journal of Urban Health, 86(4), 602–623. doi: 10.1007/s11524-009-9363-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Montgomery, J., Mokotoff, E., Gentry, A., & Blair, J. (2003). The extent of bisexual behaviour in HIV-infected men and implications for transmission to their female sex partners. AIDS Care, 15(6), 829–837. doi: 10.1080/09540120310001618676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Myers, H. F., Javanbakht, M., Martinez, M., & Obediah, S. (2003). Psychosocial predictors of risky sexual behaviors in African American men: Implications for prevention. AIDS Education and Prevention, 15(Suppl1), 66–79. doi: 10.1521/aeap.15.1.5.66.23615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nakamura, N., Semple, S. J., Strathdee, S. A., & Patterson, T. L. (2011). HIV risk profiles among HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with both men and women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40(4), 793–801. doi: 10.1007/s10508-010-9713-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. O’Leary, A., Purcell, D., Remien, R., Fisher, H., & Spikes, P. (2007a). Characteristics of bisexually active men in the Seropositive Urban Mens’ Study (SUMS). AIDS Care, 19(7), 940–946. doi: 10.1080/09540120701211454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. O’Leary, A., Purcell, D. W., Remien, R. H., Fisher, H. E., & Spikes, P. S. (2007b). Characteristics of bisexually active men in the Seropositive Urban Mens’ Study (SUMS). AIDS Care, 19(7), 940–946. doi: 10.1080/09540120701211454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ochs, R. (1996). Biphobia: It goes more than two ways. In B. A. Firestein (Ed.), Bisexuality: The psychology and politics of an invisible minority (pp. 217–239). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  84. Operario, D., Smith, C. D., Arnold, E., & Kegeles, S. (2010). The Bruthas Project: evaluation of community-based HIV prevention intervention for African American men who have sex with men and women. AIDS Education and Prevention, 22(1), 37–48. doi: 10.1521/aeap.2010.22.1.37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Operario, D., Smith, C. D., Arnold, E., & Kegeles, S. (2011). Sexual risk and substance use behaviors among African American men who have sex with men and women. AIDS Behavior, 15(3), 576–583. doi: 10.1007/s10461-009-9588-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Orellana, E. R., Picciano, J. F., Roffman, R. A., Swanson, F., & Kalichman, S. C. (2006). Correlates of nonparticipation in an HIV prevention program for MSM. AIDS Education and Prevention, 18(4), 348–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ostrow, D. G., Plankey, M. W., Cox, C., Li, X., Shoptaw, S., Jacobson, L. P., et al. (2009). Specific sex-drug combinations contribute to the majority of recent HIV seroconversions among MSM in the MACS. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 51(3), 349–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pathela, P., & Schillinger, J. A. (2010). Sexual behaviors and sexual violence: adolescents with opposite-, same-, or both-sex partners. Pediatrics, 126(5), 879–886. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-0396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Paul, J. P., Catania, J., Pollack, L., Moskowitz, J., Canchola, J., Mills, T., et al. (2002). Suicide attempts among gay and bisexual men: Lifetime prevalence and antecedents. American Journal of Public Health, 92(8), 1338–1345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pedersen, W., & Hegna, K. (2003). Children and adolescents who sell sex: A community study. Social Science Medicine, 56(1), 135–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Purcell, D. W., Patterson, J. D., Spikes, P. S., Wolitski, R. J., Stall, R., & Valdiserri, R. O. (2007). Childhood sexual abuse experienced by gay and bisexual men: Understanding the disparities and interventions to help eliminate them. In R. J. Wolitski, R. Stall, & R. O. Valdiserri (Eds.), Unequal opportunity: Health disparities affecting gay and bisexual men in the United States (pp. 72–96). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Purcell, D. W., Johnson, C. H., Lansky, A., Prejean, J., Stein, R., Denning, P., et al. (2012). Estimating the population size of men who have sex with men in the United States to obtain HIV and syphilis rates. Open AIDS Journal, 6(1), 98–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Reece, M., Herbenick, D., Schick, V., Sanders, S. A., Dodge, B., & Fortenberry, D. (2010). Sexual behaviors, relationships, and perceived health among adult men in the United States: results from a national probability sample. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 7(s5), 291–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rhodes, F., Deren, S., Wood, M. M., Shedlin, M. G., Carlson, R. G., Lambert, E. Y., et al. (1999). Understanding HIV risks of chronic drug-using men who have sex with men. AIDS Care, 11(6), 629–648. doi: 10.1080/09540129947550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rietmeijer, C. A., Wolitski, R. J., Fishbein, M., Corby, N. H., & Cohn, D. L. (1998). Sex hustling, injection drug use, and non-gay identification by men who have sex with men: associations with high-risk sexual behaviors and condom use. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 25(7), 353–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Robin, L., Brener, N. D., Donahue, S. F., Hack, T., Hale, K., & Goodenow, C. (2002). Associations between health risk behaviors and opposite-, same-, and both-sex sexual partners in representative samples of Vermont and Massachusetts high school students. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 156(4), 349–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rogers, S. M., & Turner, C. F. (1991). Male-male sexual contact in the USA: Findings from five sample surveys, 1970–1990. Journal of Sex Research, 28(4), 491–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ross, L. E., Dobinson, C., & Eady, A. (2010). Perceived determinants of mental health for bisexual people: A qualitative examination. American Journal of Public Health, 100(3), 496–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Russell, S. T., Driscoll, A. K., & Truong, N. (2002). Adolescent same-sex romantic attractions and relationships: Implications for substance use and abuse. American Journal of Public Health, 92(2), 198–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rust, P. C. (2000). Bisexuality in the United States: A social science reader. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Saewyc, E. M., Skay, C. L., Hynds, P., Pettingell, S., Bearinger, L. H., Resnick, M. D., et al. (2008). Suicidal ideation and attempts in North American school-based surveys: Are bisexual youth at increasing risk? Journal of LGBT Health Research, 3(2), 25–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Saewyc, E. M., Homma, Y., Skay, C. L., Bearinger, L. H., Resnick, M. D., & Reis, E. (2009). Protective factors in the lives of bisexual adolescents in North America. American Journal of Public Health, 99(1), 110–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sandfort, T. (1998). Homosexual and bisexual behaviour in European countries. Sexual Behaviour and HIV/AIDS in Europe, 68–105.Google Scholar
  104. Sandfort, T., & Dodge, B. (2008). “And then there was the down low”: Introduction to black and Latino male bisexualities. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37(5), 675–682. doi: 10.1007/s10508-008-9359-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Shoptaw, S., Weiss, R. E., Munjas, B., Hucks-Ortiz, C., Young, S. D., Larkins, S., et al. (2009). Homonegativity, substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and HIV status in poor and ethnic men who have sex with men in Los Angeles. Journal of Urban Health, 86(Suppl 1), 77–92. doi: 10.1007/s11524-009-9372-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Singh, S., Hu, X., Wheeler, W., & Hall, I. (2014). HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men and women—United States and 6 dependent areas, 2008-2011. American Journal of Public Health, 104(9), 1700–1706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Smith, T. W. (2006). Sexual behavior in the United States. Sex and Sexuality, 1, 104–132.Google Scholar
  108. Solorio, R., Swendeman, D., & Rotheram-Borus, M. J. (2003). Risk among young gay and bisexual men living with HIV. AIDS Education and Prevention, 15(1 Suppl A), 80–89.Google Scholar
  109. Spikes, P. S., Purcell, D. W., Williams, K. M., Chen, Y., Ding, H., & Sullivan, P. S. (2009). Sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive black men who have sex with women, with men, or with men and women: Implications for intervention development. American Journal of Public Health, 99(6), 1072–1078. doi: 10.2105/ajph.2008.144030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Stall, R., & Purcell, D. W. (2000). Intertwining epidemics: A review of research on substance use among men who have sex with men and its connection to the AIDS epidemic. AIDS and Behavior, 4(2), 181–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Torian, L. V., Makki, H. A., Menzies, I. B., Murrill, C. S., & Weisfuse, I. B. (2002). HIV infection in men who have sex with men, New York City Department of Health sexually transmitted disease clinics, 1990-1999: A decade of serosurveillance finds that racial disparities and associations between HIV and gonorrhea persist. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 29(2), 73–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Udry, J. R., & Chantala, K. (2002). Risk assessment of adolescents with same-sex relationships. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31(1), 84–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ueno, K. (2005). Sexual orientation and psychological distress in adolescence: Examining interpersonal stressors and social support processes. Social Psychology Quarterly, 68(3), 258–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Weinberg, M. S., Williams, C. J., & Pryor, D. W. (2001). Bisexuals at midlife commitment, salience, and identity. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 30(2), 180–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wheeler, D. P. (2006). Exploring HIV prevention needs for nongay-identified black and African American men who have sex with men: A qualitative exploration. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 33(7 Suppl), S11–S16. doi: 10.1097/01.olq.0000216021.76170.e1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wheeler, D. P., Lauby, J. L., Liu, K. L., Van Sluytman, L. G., & Murrill, C. (2008). A comparative analysis of sexual risk characteristics of black men who have sex with men or with men and women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37(5), 697–707. doi: 10.1007/s10508-008-9372-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wolitski, R. J., & Fenton, K. A. (2011). Sexual health, HIV, and sexually transmitted infections among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men in the United States. AIDS Behavior, 15(Suppl 1), S9–S17. doi: 10.1007/s10461-011-9901-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wolitski, R. J., Stall, R., & Valdiserri, R. O. (2008). Unequal opportunity: Health disparities affecting gay and bisexual men in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  119. Wyatt, G. E., Myers, H. F., Ashing-Giwa, K. T., Durvasula, R. S., & Staples, R. (1998). Dating patterns: sociocultural factors affecting sexual risk taking in African American men and women—results from two empirical studies. The Black Family: Essays and Studies. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 45–57.Google Scholar
  120. Zea, M. C., Reisen, C. A., & Diaz, R. M. (2003). Methodological issues in research on sexual behavior with Latino gay and bisexual men. American Journal of Community Psychology, 31(3–4), 281–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zellner, J. A., Martinez-Donate, A. P., Sanudo, F., Fernandez-Cerdeno, A., Sipan, C. L., Hovel, M. F., et al. (2009). The interaction of sexual identity with sexual behavior and its influence on HIV risk among Latino men: Results of a community survey in northern San Diego County, California. American Journal of Public Health, 99(1), 125–132. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2007.129809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Ziyadeh, N. J., Prokop, L. A., Fisher, L. B., Rosario, M., Field, A. E., Camargo, C. A., et al. (2007). Sexual orientation, gender, and alcohol use in a cohort study of U.S. adolescent girls and boys. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 87(2), 119–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zule, W. A., Bobashev, G. V., Wechsberg, W. M., Costenbader, E. C., & Coomes, C. M. (2009). Behaviorally bisexual men and their risk behaviors with men and women. Journal of Urban Health, 86(Suppl 1), 48–62. doi: 10.1007/s11524-009-9366-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Public HealthUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.School of Public HealthIndiana University-BloomingtonBloomingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations