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Bacterial Infections

  • Giancarlo Bessa
Chapter

Abstract

Pyodermitis is very common and results from bacterial invasion of the skin, near soft tissue, and its appendages. Most cutaneous infections are caused by Staphylococcus aureus and group A β-hemolytic streptococci, with various presentations and severity. Clinical manifestations can range from mild superficial lesions to life-threatening necrotizing and systemic infections. The diagnosis is essentially based on clinical evaluation. Cultural examinations may be necessary to confirm the etiologic agent when there is doubt about the diagnosis or there is suspicion of resistant bacteria. Management is determined by the severity and location of the infection and by patient comorbidities. Superficial uncomplicated pyodermitis may be treated with topical antimicrobial drugs. Solitary and small abscesses respond well to drainage and seldom require antibiotics. For deep infections the initial systemic antimicrobial treatment is empiric, and generally should cover Gram-positive cocci. Patients with necrotizing infections require prompt surgical debridement and empiric polymicrobial antibiotic coverage. The antibiotic choice depends on clinical presentation and the local burden of multiresistant bacteria, mainly methicillin-resistant S. aureus.

Keywords

Pyodermitis Bacteria Skin Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus pyogenes Gram-positive Gram-negative Anaerobes Bacterial toxins Antibiotics 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ULBRACanoasBrazil

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