Advertisement

Metatarsalgia, Calluses, and Callosities of the Feet

  • Silvio Maffi
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, anatomic and biomechanical features of the foot were described in detail, as well as the clinical characteristics of metatarsalgia, calluses, and plantar callosities, with their respective causes. The differential diagnoses of plantar cutaneous lesions and the most appropriate therapeutic procedures to the main diseases are outlined. In addition, orthopedic deformities of the toes and their skin consequences are described. Many illustrations are included to complement and help explain the different aspects of the diseases discussed.

Keywords

Metatarsalgia Calluses Callosities Phalanges Metatarsus Tarsus Forefoot Midfoot Hindfoot 

Notes

Glossary

Bunion

A bony bump that forms on the joint at the base of the big toe. A bunion forms when the big toe pushes against the next toe, forcing the joint of the big toe to get bigger and stick out.

Bursitis

Inflammation and swelling of a bursa. A bursa is a fluid-filled sac which forms under the skin, usually over the joints, and acts as a cushion between the tendons and bones.

Condylectomy

Excision of a condyle. Plantar condylectomy has been presented as a procedure indicated in the correction of dislocated metatarsophalangeal joints.

Eccrine poroma

A benign adnexal neoplasm composed of epithelial cells that show tubular (usually distal ductal) differentiation, derived from sweat glands.

Keratodermia

Any skin disorder consisting of a growth that appears horny.

Osteophytes

Bony projections that form along joint margins, commonly referred to as bone spurs.

Osteotomy

A surgical operation whereby a bone is cut to shorten or lengthen it or to change its alignment.

Paresthesia

A sensation of tingling, tickling, pricking, or burning of a person’s skin with no apparent physical cause.

Synovitis

Inflammation of a synovial (joint-lining) membrane, usually painful, particularly on motion, and characterized by swelling, due to effusion (fluid collection) in a synovial sac.

References

  1. 1.
    Harris RI, Beath T. The short first metatarsal: its a incidence and clinical significance. J Bone Joint Surg. 1949:553.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mann RA, Kaz J. Keratotic disorders of the plantar skin. In: Coughlin MJ, Saltzman CL, Anderson RB, editors. Mann’s surgery of foot and ankle. 9th ed. Elsevier Saunders; 2014. p. 425–54.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dockery GL. Evaluation and treatment of metatarsalgia and keratotic disorders. In: Myerson MS, editor. Foot and ankle disorders. 1st ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 2000. p. 359–77.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Scranton, P E Jr, Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume. 1980: 723–32.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Scranton PE. Metatarsalgia: a clinical review of diagnosis and management. Foot Ankle Int. 1981;1:229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bonavilla EJ. Histopathology of the Heloma Durum: some significant features and their implications. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1968;58:423–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Coughlin MJ. Mallet toes, hammer toes, claw toes, and corns. Causes and treatment of lesser-toe deformities. Postgrad Med. 1984;75:191–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Margo MK. Surgical treatment of conditions of the fore part of the foot. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1967;49:1665–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gillet HC. Interdigital clavus: predisposition is the key factor of soft corns. Clin Orthop. 1979;142:103–9.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Marek L, Giacopelli J, Granoff D. Syndactylization for the treatment of fifth toe deformities. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1991;81:247–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Espinosa N, Brodsky JW, Maceira E. Metatarsalgia. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2010;18:474–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ibrahim K. Pes cavus. In: Evarts CM, editor. Surgery of the musculoskeletal system. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1990. p. 4015–34.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tynan MC, Klenerman L, Helliwell TR, et al. Investigation of muscle imbalance in the leg in symptomatic forefoot pes cavus: a multidisciplinary study. J Foot Ankle Cir. 1992;13:189–501.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mann RA, DuVries MD. Intractable plantar keratosis. Orthop Clin North Am. 1973;4:67–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Guyton G, Mann R. The pathogenesis and surgical management of foot deformity in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Foot Ankle Clin. 2000;5:317–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kroon M, Faber FW, van der Linden M. Joint preservation surgery for correction of flexible pes cavovarus in adults. Foot Ankle Int. 2010;31:24–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Laurent R, Kienzler JL. Epidemiology of HPV infections. Clin Dermatol. 1985;3:64–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Glover MG. Plantar warts. Foot Ankle Int. 1990;11:172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    McCarthy DJ. Therapeutic considerations in the treatment of pedal verrucae. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 1986;3:433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gibbs S, Harvey L, Sterling J, Stark R. Local treatments for cutaneous warts. BMJ. 2002;325(7362):461.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jennings MB, Ricketti J, Guadara J, et al. Treatment for simple plantar verrucae. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2006;96:53–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Salk R, Douglas TS. Intralesional bleomycin sulfate injection for the treatment of verruca plantari. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2006;96:220–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kacar N, Tasli L, Korkmaz S, et al. Cantharidn-podophylotoxin-salicylic acid versus cryotherapy in the treatment of plantar warts: a randomized prospective study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2012;26(7):889–93.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bengoa D, Vallejo RB, Iglesias MEL, Gomez-Martin B, et al. Application of canthardin and podophyllotoxin for the treatment of plantar warts. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2008;98:445–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Young S, Cohen GE. Treatment of verruca plantaris with a combination of topical fluorouracil and salicylic acid. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2005;95:366–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Borovoy M, Elson LM, Sage M. Flashlamp pulse dye laser (585 nm). Treatment of resistant verrucae. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1996;86:547–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gloster HM, Roenigk RK. Risk of acquiring human papillomavirus from the plume produced by the carbon dioxide laser in the treatment of warts. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995;32:436–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.OrthopaedicsPorto AlegreBrazil

Personalised recommendations