• Doris HexselEmail author
  • Fernanda Oliveira Camozzato


Hyperhidrosis is defined as sweating amounts larger than necessary to maintain normal body thermoregulation. This condition can affect the patient’s quality of life by way of its psychological and social impact. The central nervous system (cortex, hypothalamus, medulla) and sweat glands, including the eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine, are involved in the physiopathology of this condition. Hyperhidrosis can be divided into primary and secondary, and is also associated with a wide variety of conditions. Treatments to alleviate this disorder include topical products (aluminum compounds), iontophoresis, oral treatment with anticholinergic agents (glycopyrrolate, clonidine, oxybutynin), and interventional procedures such as botulinum toxin A, sweat gland removal (suction or curettage), microfocused ultrasound, and sympathectomy. Understanding the clinical features of this disorder and treatment modalities is vital to the optimization of treatment for affected patients.


Hyperhidrosis Primary hyperhidrosis Secondary hyperhidrosis Axillar hyperhidrosis Palmar hyperhidrosis Sweat glands Aluminum compounds Botulinum toxin A Iontophoresis Anticholinergic agents Microfocused ultrasound Sympathectomy 



Apocrine sweat glands 

Larger sweat glands that occur in hair follicles. They appear after puberty.

Apoeccrine sweat glands 

Contain morphological features common to the eccrine and apocrine sweat glands.

Eccrine sweat glands 

Small sweat glands that produce a fluid secretion without removing cytoplasm from the secreting cells and that are restricted to the human skin.


Sweating greater than necessary for the maintenance of normal body thermoregulation.

Primary hyperhidrosis 

Excessive sweating in specific regions of the body and not caused by other medical conditions or by medications.

Secondary hyperhidrosis 

Excessive sweating caused by medications or medical conditions.


Procedures that break the sympathetic innervation, thereby blocking stimulation of eccrine glands.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Brazilian Center for Studies in DermatologyPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Hexsel Dermatology ClinicPorto AlegreBrazil

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