• Daniel LorenziniEmail author
  • Fabiane Kumagai Lorenzini
  • Karen Reetz Muller
  • Sabrina Dequi Sanvido


Prurigo represents a group of dermatoses characterized by intense pruritus and papular and papular-vesicular lesions. It can be acute (when resulting from insect bites), subacute, and chronic, often defined as idiopathic. A vast etiologic variety has been acknowledged as related to prurigo, and in certain situations it is associated with the atopic condition, pregnancy, systemic diseases, malignancy, and emotional factors (which can influence the perception of itch and induce prurigo by provoking scratching). Management must focus on etiology and symptom control to improve the patient’s quality of life. Treatment consists of topical agents (topical corticosteroids, coal tar, capsaicin), phototherapy, cryotherapy, and systemic drugs (such as erythromycin, cyclosporine, chloroquine, dapsone, minocycline, antihistamines, methotrexate, azathioprine, thalidomide, psychotherapeutic agents). Generalized and therapy-resistant cases may be treated with drug combinations to allow the patient to develop a tolerance for the intense pruritus yielded by the condition. Prurigo results in significant anxiety, often requiring psychological follow-up.


Prurigo Pruritus Strophulus Prurigo Hebra Prurigo nodularis Pregnancy Actinic prurigo HIV Prurigo pigmentosa Besnier’s prurigo Thalidomide 




Erosion is caused by loss of the surface of a skin lesion; it is a shallow moist or crusted lesion.


A scratch mark. It may be linear or a picked scratch (prurigo). Excoriations may occur in the absence of a primary dermatosis.


Lichenification is caused by chronic rubbing, which results in palpably thickened skin with increased skin markings and lichenoid scale. It occurs in chronic atopic eczema and lichen simplex.


An enlargement of a papule in three dimensions (height, width, length). It is a solid lesion.


Small palpable lesions. The usual definition is that they are less than 0.5 cm diameter, although some authors allow up to 1.5 cm. They are raised above the skin surface, and may be solitary or multiple.


A palpable flat lesion greater than 0.5 cm in diameter. Most plaques are elevated, but a plaque can also be a thickened area without being visibly raised above the skin surface. They may have well-defined or ill-defined borders.


Small fluid-filled blisters less than 0.5 cm in diameter. They may be single or multiple.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Lorenzini
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fabiane Kumagai Lorenzini
    • 2
  • Karen Reetz Muller
    • 2
  • Sabrina Dequi Sanvido
    • 3
  1. 1.Federal University of Health Sciences from Porto Alegre, School of MedicinePorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Santa Marta Health CenterPorto AlegreBrazil
  3. 3.Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto AlegrePorto AlegreBrazil

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