• Isadora da Rosa HoeffelEmail author
  • Marina Resener de Moraes
  • Barbara Lovato


Rashes are the most common dermatologic sign that leads patients to seek medical attention, regardless of their cause. Usually they represent a major diagnostic challenge for general practitioners, emergency physicians, and even dermatologists, since different diseases can clinically yield very similar rashes, and the same disease can be differently displayed on the skin. Moreover, many of these diseases need a very quick and accurate diagnosis for prompt therapeutic management. In this chapter the etiology of rash is divided into adult and pediatric causes. Drugs reactions are the main cause of rash and exanthem in the adult population and infections, usually the viral ones, account for the greater number of these occurrences in children.


Rash Exanthema Drugs Infections Dermatitis Fever 



Biett’s collarette

A syphilitic symptom characterized by a thin white ring of scales on the surface of a macule or papule.

Filatov sign

A typical sign of scarlet fever characterized by paleness around the mouth and congestion of the cheeks.

Koplik spots

Spots characterized by clustered, small, white lesions on the buccal mucosa (opposite the upper first and second molars), pathognomonic for measles. The spots resemble tiny grains of white sand, each surrounded by a red ring.

Papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome

An acute dermatosis characterized by a papular-purpuric edematous rash in a distinct “gloves and socks” distribution often accompanied by fever, asthenia, and lymphadenopathies. It is mainly caused by parvovirus B19 (B19V) although other viruses and drugs may be involved.

Pastia’s lines

A clinical sign whereby pink or red lines formed of confluent petechiae occur in areas of skin creases, such as the axilla, the neck, the antecubital fossa, and the popliteal fossa. This is a typical sign of scarlet fever.

Primary skin lesions

Blister: Raised lesion, more than 1 cm wide, with internal liquid content.

Macula: Flat nonpalpable lesions, less than 1 cm wide, showing inconspicuous texture and/or color change.

Nodule: Palpable raised and indurated lesion usually deeper than the papule.

Patch: Flat nonpalpable lesion, more than 1 cm wide, showing discrete texture and/or color change.

Papule: Circumscribed palpable lesion, above skin surface, less than 1 cm wide.

Plaque: Palpable and raised lesion, above skin surface, more than 1 cm wide.

Pustule: Raised surface lesion with internal yellow content (pus).

Vesicle: Raised lesion, less than 1 cm wide, with internal light liquid content.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isadora da Rosa Hoeffel
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marina Resener de Moraes
    • 2
  • Barbara Lovato
    • 1
  1. 1.Dermatology Service of UFCSPAPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto AlegrePorto AlegreBrazil

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