Smoking, Alcoholism, and Use of Illicit Drugs
Tobacco smoking, one of the main modifiable risk factors for mortality, is associated with cutaneous neoplasias and cutaneous aging, besides worsening of the postsurgical scarring process. It is also involved with the pathogenesis and the worsening of some dermatoses, such as Buerger’s disease, lupus, psoriasis, and hidradenitis suppurativa. Alcoholism is a chronic, progressive, and lethal disease that leads to multiple organ dysfunction and skin manifestations associated with endocrinologic changes, with nutritional deficiencies and signs of hepatopathy. Alcoholism is associated with the triggering or worsening of dermatoses, such as psoriasis, porphyria, seborrheic dermatitis, rosacea, urticaria, contact dermatitis, and eczema. Advice to patients on quitting smoking and drinking should be part of the routine general directions about general health and the skin health. Cocaine, one of the world’s oldest drugs, causes euphoria accompanied by serious side effects including cardiac disorders, skin necrosis, and nasal septum perforation, among others. This chapter discusses the main manifestations of tobacco smoking, alcoholism, and drug addiction (particularly cocaine use, also when mixed with adjuvant drugs such as levamisole).
KeywordsSmoking Tobacco Alcohol Alcoholism Drugs Illicit drugs Cocaine Levamisole Adjuvancy
Neurotransmitter released by cholinergic neurons responsible for muscle contraction, learning, and memory, whose action is mediated by nicotinic and muscarinic receptors found at the neuromuscular junctions in the central and peripheral nervous system.
Dermatosis related to the development of papules and follicular pustules, with or without comedones, connected to predisposing factors or medicines, located in sites that do not usually show acne, or occurring in life stages other than adolescence.
Molecule of carbon monoxide linked to a molecule of hemoglobin. Its development is associated with carbon monoxide toxicity.
A substance, situation, or exposition that can damage the genetic material (DNA), thus initiating or stimulating cancer development.
Lip dermatosis resulting from different causes that manifests as erythemas, scaling, vesicles, fissures, tumefaction, nodules, and so forth.
Solid development in the pilosebaceous follicles resulting from retained sebum produced by the gland due to acro-infundibulum obliteration by focal keratosis.
Related to cell destruction (cytolysis).
Semiologic description of lesion feature shaped like a disc.
Alterations of the tongue mucosa caused by poor nutrition, infections, and physical, chemical, or drug-induced irritation that are manifested by partial or total loss of the filiform papillae, and smooth and red tongue.
Increased breast tissue, unilaterally or bilaterally, in men.
Yellow color of skin, mucosa, and sclera caused by hyperbilirubinemia.
Final phase of the keratinocyte differentiation whereby keratin is formed.
Zinc-dependent proteinases that show cleavage activity (gelatinolytic) of the matrix and angiogenic and inflammatory activities, synthesized by many cells including fibroblasts and leukocytes.
Physical, chemical, or biological agent which can cause mutation if exposed to one cell, i.e., damage to the DNA that is not repaired and is passed on to the next generations.
Development of new blood vessels. This process can be physiologic or pathologic.
Semiologic description of lesion feature as “rounded, resembling coin.”
The characteristic and proper sign of a disease.
Red coloration through vascular engorgement in polycythemic patients; increased blood volume.
Skin lines and depressions resulting from facial, neck, hand, and arm aging, commonly known as wrinkles.
Tissue fat accumulation.
Dermatosis of mucosa of the buccal cavity of multiple etiology, such as infections and nicotine.
Dilation of dermal small blood vessels.
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