Diseases of Thyroid

  • Sérgio Ivan Torres DornellesEmail author
  • Carlos Alberto Werutsky
  • Ana Eliza Antunes Bomfim
  • Camila Boff
  • Renan Rangel Bonamigo


The authors conducted a review of the most prevalent skin manifestations associated with the thyroid and its functions. Cutaneous diseases more often related to hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, and the structural changes of the thyroid gland are discussed separately. The pathogenesis, clinical presentation, investigative examinations, and treatment of thyroid-related cutaneous disease are described.


Thyroid Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Mucopolysaccharides Textural alterations Pretibial myxedema Graves’ ophthalmopathy Thyroid acropachy Generalized myxedema Thyroglossal duct cyst Cutaneous metastases 



Cutis marmorata

Manifests as skin changes displaying violet spots on the trunk and limbs, which can be highlighted by cold temperature.


The condition when an individual sees two images of the same object.


Components of the connective tissue. They represent 30% of the body’s organic material and can exist as different types, such as chondroitin sulfate for cartilage, bone, or cornea; dermatan sulfate for the dermis and the tendons; and heparan sulfate for the liver, lungs, and aorta.

Hyaluronic acid

A biopolymer made of the glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine. With a viscous texture, it exists in the synovial fluid, the vitreous humor, and the connective tissue of numerous organisms, being an important glycosaminoglycan in articulation composition.


The accumulation of interstitial fluid rich in proteins of high molecular weight.


The abnormal growth of the tongue so that it reaches a size larger than the one allowed by the buccal cavity, resulting in impaired phonation and respiratory, suction, and/or swallow function.


An extracorporeal process by which the blood collected from a patient is separated into its plasma and cell element compounds.


Proptosis is characterized by a displacement of the eyeball to the front of one eye, or both eyes.

Proto-oncogene (RET)

RET proto-oncogene activating mutations may result in the development of the thyroid medullary carcinoma. Its research study is useful for the genetic tracking of thyroid medullary carcinoma.

Radioactive iodine

Radioactive iodine treats hyperthyroidism by gradually shrinking the thyroid, ultimately destroying the gland.


A monoclonal chimeric antibody (murine/human) against an antigen that is the protein of the cell surface, CD20

Thyroxine (T4)

A hormone that plays a role in several body functions, including growth and metabolism.

Tri-iodothyronine (T3)

T3 and T4 (thyroxine) are hormones produced by the thyroid gland. They help to control the rate at which the body uses energy, and are regulated by a feedback system.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

TSH stimulates the production and release of T4 (primarily) and T3. As necessary, T4 is converted to T3 by the liver and other tissues.

Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1)

TTF-1 regulates the transcription of the specific genes of the thyroid, the lung, and the diencephalon. It is used in anatomic pathology as a marker to determine whether a tumor has its origin in the lung or the thyroid.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sérgio Ivan Torres Dornelles
    • 1
    Email author
  • Carlos Alberto Werutsky
    • 2
  • Ana Eliza Antunes Bomfim
    • 3
    • 4
  • Camila Boff
    • 5
  • Renan Rangel Bonamigo
    • 6
    • 7
    • 8
  1. 1.Sanitary Dermatology Service of Health Department of Rio Grande do Sul State (ADS-SES)Porto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Nutrology and EndocrinologyHospital 9 de JulhoSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Sanitary Dermatology Service of Health Department of Rio Grande do Sul State (ADS-SES)Porto AlegreBrazil
  4. 4.Department of DermatologyClinica DuartePelotasBrazil
  5. 5.Sanitary Dermatology Service of the Department of Health of Rio Grande do Sul StatePorto AlegreBrazil
  6. 6.Dermatology Service, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)Porto AlegreBrazil
  7. 7.Sanitary Dermatology Service of the Department of Health of Rio Grande do Sul State (ADS-SES)Porto AlegreBrazil
  8. 8.Graduate Pathology Program of Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto AlegrePorto AlegreBrazil

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