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Neonatal Dermatosis

  • Ana Elisa Kiszewski
Chapter

Abstract

Newborn skin presents particular characteristics, such as less thickness and greater fragility. In addition, during the neonatal period the skin is under the effect of the mother’s hormones, which pass through the placenta during intrauterine life. More than 90% of newborns have some transient dermatosis. Dermatoses may be related to skin fragility, immature vasomotor or immunological system, the action of the mother’s hormones in the skin, or even the presence of unknown etiopathogenetic factors. Congenital skin conditions in newborns are called birthmarks and may be permanent or transient. Detecting neonatal dermatosis is important because it allows parents to make adequate decisions regarding treatment, if needed. Environmental and ethnic and factors may also significantly influence some neonatal transient dermatoses and birthmarks, respectively.

Keywords

Neonatal dermatoses Vernix caseosa Physiologic desquamation Physiologic cutis marmorata Lanugo Acrocyanosis Mini puberty Gingival and palatine epidermal cyst Milia Miliaria Sebaceous gland hyperplasia Neonatal acne Neonatal cephalic pustulosis Toxic erythema Transient neonatal pustular melanosis Infantile acropustulosis Salmon patch Mongolian spots Hemangioma Capillary vascular malformation Café-au-lait spots Congenital melanocytic nevus 

Notes

Glossary

Comedo

A clogged hair follicle resulting in infundibular dilation and thinning of the follicular wall. It possesses a plug composed of loosely arranged keratinized cells and sebum.

Erythema

Redness of the skin, caused by increased blood flow in superficial capillaries. It occurs with any skin injury, infection, or inflammation. Erythema disappears on finger pressure (blanching), while purpura or bleeding in the skin and pigmentation do not.

Melanosis

Abnormally dark pigmentation of the skin or other tissues, resulting from a disorder of pigment metabolism.

Pustulosis

A highly inflammatory skin condition resulting in large fluid-filled blister-like areas, or pustules. Many neutrophils are present within the cavity of a pustule. The epidermis surrounding the pustule shows slight acanthosis, and an inflammatory infiltrate can be seen beneath the pustule.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dermatology Service of UFCSPAFederal University of Health Sciences of Porto AlegrePorto AlegreBrazil

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