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Psoriasis

  • André Vicente Esteves de Carvalho
Chapter

Abstract

Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease whereby erythematous scaling plaques appear on otherwise healthy skin. Genetic and environmental factors gather to induce the outbreak of lesions. Physiopathology of the disease is an immune imbalance driven mainly by cellular immunity (CD4+ T lymphocytes) and release of different cytokines (TNF-α, IL-17, IL-23, among others). The disease has different clinical presentations according to the extent of the disease, location, or presence of pustules. Arthritis may also be a feature in up to one-third of patients and other comorbidities also may be present (for example, metabolic syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease). Treatment depends on the extension and severity of the disease and may range from topical treatment to systemic immunosuppressants.

Keywords

Psoriasis Erythematous scaling Inflammatory disease Photochemotherapy Immunosuppressants Biologics 

Notes

Glossary

Auspitz’s sign

Pinpoint bleeding following methodic curettage of the scales in a psoriatic lesion.

Clubbing

Histopathologic term referring to elongated and widened rete ridges, which look like a club.

Erythroderma

Scaling erythematous dermatitis that affects 90% or more of the body surface area. Psoriasis is one of the causes of erythroderma, but other diseases may also be causes.

Sézary syndrome

A late stage of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that is characterized by the epidermotropism of neoplastic CD4+ T lymphocytes, which form microabscesses (Pautrier’s microabscesses). Lymphadenopathy and presence of atypical T cells (Sézary cells) in the peripheral blood are signs of late-stage disease.

Tricophytoid lesion

Lesion similar to a skin fungal infection (tinea). Its characteristic is a annular lesion with a more prominent border (active border), where the fungal activity resides.

von Zumbusch psoriasis

Also called Von Zumbusch generalized pustular psoriasis, this is a severe and generalized form of pustular psoriasis. Pus consists of neutrophils. Drugs, emotional stress, infections, and sudden withdrawal of systemic steroids are some of the eliciting factors.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto AlegrePorto AlegreBrazil

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