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Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Roberto Gomes Tarlé
  • Wagner Bertolini
  • Luciano José Biasi
  • José Roberto Toshio Shibue
Chapter

Abstract

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most commonly detected skin cancer. SCC is mainly detected in the head, neck, limbs, and areas of higher photoexposition. Both extrinsic and intrinsic individual factors account for the development of skin epidermoid carcinoma. Among the main factors there are ultraviolet radiation exposure, immunosuppression, human papilloma virus, genodermatosis, chronic dermatosis, arsenic exposure, and ionizing radiation. Its subtypes are actinic keratosis, epidermoid carcinoma in situ, and invading epidermoid carcinoma. The main aims of SCC treatment are: total removal of the tumor thus minimizing the risk for recurrence and metastasis; preservation of function; and provision of the best possible aesthetic outcome.

Keywords

Skin epidermoid carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Skin cancer Nonmelanoma skin cancer 

Notes

Glossary

Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma

Variant of SCC characterized by a cleavage of the intercellular bridges, resulting in acantholysis.

Apoptosis

Programmed cell death.

Core biopsy

The removal of a tissue sample with a large needle for examination under a microscope.

Desmoplastic SCC

Variant of SCC characterized by a prominent trabecular growth pattern, narrow columns of atypical epithelial cells, and a marked desmoplastic stromal reaction.

Hyperkeratosis

Thickening of the stratum corneum, often associated with the presence of an abnormal quantity of keratin, frequently accompanied by an increase in the granular layer.

Leukoplakia

White patch or plaque of the mucosa and mucocutaneous junction.

Lichen sclerosus

A chronic atrophic disorder mainly of the anogenital skin of females but also of males and of the general skin. Whitish, ivory or porcelain-white, sharply demarcated, individual papules may become confluent, forming plaques.

Nuclear pleomorphism

Marked variation of nuclear size, nuclear shape, or nuclear staining, a common finding in malignant lesions.

Parakeratosis

A disturbance of keratinization characterized by the retention of nuclei in the stratum corneum.

Photodamage

Skin changes consequent to exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet radiation.

Positron emission tomography (PET)

A nuclear medicine, functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body.

Punch biopsy

Use of a specialized surgical instrument (punch) for the removal of a full-thickness specimen of the skin (epidermis, dermis, and fat) in a defined area.

TP53 tumor supressor gene

Mutation of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene is a frequent event in tumorigenesis; the many roles of the protein p53 as a tumor suppressor include the ability to induce cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, senescence, and apoptosis.

Xeroderma pigmentosum

A rare hereditary skin disorder caused by a defect in the enzymes that repair DNA damaged by ultraviolet light and resulting in hypersensitivity to the carcinogenic effect of ultraviolet light.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Gomes Tarlé
    • 1
  • Wagner Bertolini
    • 2
  • Luciano José Biasi
    • 3
  • José Roberto Toshio Shibue
    • 4
  1. 1.Santa Casa de Misericórdia Pontifical Catholic University of Parana – PUCPRCuritibaBrazil
  2. 2.Santa Casa HospitalPorto AlegreBrazil
  3. 3.Instituto de Oncologia do ParanáCuritibaBrazil
  4. 4.Santa Casa de Curitiba, Instituto de Neurologia de CuritibaCuritibaBrazil

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