Fungal Infections

  • Raíssa Londero ChemelloEmail author
  • Rafaella Daboit Castagna
  • Taciana Cappelletti
  • Juliana Mazzoleni Stramari


Superficial mycoses are fungal infections of the skin, hairs, and nails that invade only the stratum corneum and the most superficial layers of the skin, and include dermatophytoses, tinea versicolor, candidiasis, tinea nigra, and piedras (white and black). Dermatophytosis, also known as tinea, is a superficial fungal infection of the stratum corneum, nails, and hair, caused by dermatophytes, and includes three genera: Trichophyton sp., Microsporum sp., and Epidermophyton sp. Pityriasis versicolor, or tinea versicolor, is a common superficial fungal infection of the skin caused by Malassezia yeasts that presents as flaky round or oval macular elements, usually located in the upper aspects of the trunk, neck, and arms. Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by any of the species from the genera Candida, which includes about 150 different species of yeast, among which C. albicans is the most common causative species, accounting for up to 80% of cases. Subcutaneous mycoses include a heterogeneous group of infections that often result from direct penetration of the fungus into the skin through trauma. Systemic mycosis is characterized by infections caused by truly pathogenic fungi as well as those produced by fungi with small intrinsic pathogenicity, enhanced by immunocompromised hosts. In the majority of cases, the respiratory tract may be the first site of entry; fungi then usually spread hematogenously to other organs.


Superficial mycosis Tineas Dermatophytosis Pityriasis versicolor Candidiasis Subcutaneous mycosis Sporotrichosis Chromoblastomycosis Systemic mycosis Paracoccidioidomycosis 



Anthropophilic (dermatophytes)

Restricted to human hosts, produce a mild, chronic inflammation.


Any of a class of immunoregulatory proteins such as interleukin or interferon that are secreted by cells, especially of the immune system.


A fungus that grows inside the shaft of a hair but produces a conspicuous external sheath of spores.


Dermatophyte infections of the hair that invade the hair shaft and internalize in the hair cell.


Common skin condition whereby hair follicles become inflamed, usually caused by a bacterial or fungal infection.

Geophilic (dermatophytes)

Usually recovered from the soil, occasionally infect humans and animals; they cause a marked inflammatory reaction.


Hypertrophy of the corneous layer of the skin.

Hypha (plural form hyphae)

Name of the long, individual pieces that comprise a mycelium, overall a fungus; often described as strings and thread-like filaments.


The predominant cell type in the epidermis.


The most severe form of tinea capitis, characterized by an abscess-like deep infection of the scalp. Clinically it is seen a boggy, indurated, tumor-like mass that exudes pus.


White spotting, streaking, or discoloration of the fingernails.


Mass of hyphae that forms the body of a multicellular fungus; it enables either sexual or asexual reproduction of fungi.


Spontaneous separation of the nail plate, usually starting at the distal free margin and progressing proximally; the nail plate is separated from the underlying and/or lateral supporting structures.


Widely used, yet rarely defined term; it describes any kind of irregular difference in the nail, apart from modifications in color (called nail dyschromia).


Specialized cell of the fungus that can function as resting or dispersal propagules; each spore has the capacity to generate another individual of the species.

Zoophilic (dermatophyte)

Found primarily in animals, it causes marked inflammatory reactions in humans who have contact with infected cats, dogs, cattle, horses, birds, or other animals.


  1. 1.
    Kaushik N, Pujalte GG, Reese ST. Superficial fungal infections. Prim Care. 2015;42(4):501–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nenoff P, Krüger C, Ginter-Hanselmayer G, Tietz HJ. Mycology – an update. Part 1: dermatomycoses: causative agents, epidemiology and pathogenesis. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2014;12(3):188–209. quiz 210, 188-211; quiz 212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moriarty B, Hay R, Morris-Jones R. The diagnosis and management of tinea. BMJ. 2012;345:e4380.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Weitzman I, Summerbell RC. The dermatophytes. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1995;8(2):240–59.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ilkit M, Durdu M. Tinea pedis: the etiology and global epidemiology of a common fungal infection. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2015;41(3):374–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nenoff P, Krüger C, Schaller J, Ginter-Hanselmayer G, Schulte-Beerbühl R, Tietz HJ. Mycology – an update part 2: dermatomycoses: clinical picture and diagnostics. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2014;12(9):749–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eisman S, Sinclair R. Fungal nail infection: diagnosis and management. BMJ. 2014;348:g1800.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Elewski BE. Onychomycosis: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1998;11(3):415–29.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kelly BP. Superficial fungal infections. Pediatr Rev. 2012;33(4):e22–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nenoff P, Krüger C, Paasch U, Ginter-Hanselmayer G. Mycology – an update Part 3: dermatomycoses: topical and systemic therapy. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2015;13(5):387–410. quiz 411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    González U, Seaton T, Bergus G, Jacobson J, Martínez-Monzón C. Systemic antifungal therapy for tinea capitis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;4:CD004685.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bonifaz A, Gómez-Daza F, Paredes V, Ponce RM. Tinea versicolor, tinea nigra, white piedra, and black piedra. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28(2):140–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hald M, Arendrup MC, Svejgaard EL, Lindskov R, Foged EK, Saunte DM, Danish Society of Dermatology. Evidence-based Danish guidelines for the treatment of Malassezia-related skin diseases. Acta Derm Venereol. 2015;95(1):12–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pedrosa AF, Lisboa C, Gonçalves RA. Malassezia infections: a medical conundrum. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;71(1):170–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gupta AK, Lyons DC. Pityriasis versicolor: an update on pharmacological treatment options. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2014;15(12):1707–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Khatu SS, Poojary SA, Nagpur NG. Nodules on the hair: a rare case of mixed piedra. Int J Trichol. 2013;5:220–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kiken DA1, Sekaran A, Antaya RJ, Davis A, Imaeda S, Silverberg NB. White piedra in children. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;55(6):956–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Criado PR, Delgado L, Pereira GA. Dermoscopy revealing a case of Tinea Nigra. An Bras Dermatol. 2013;88(1):128–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hani U, Shivakumar HG, Vaghela R, Osmani RAM, Shrivastava A. Candidiasis: a fungal infection – current challenges and progress in prevention and treatment. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2015;15(1):42–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peixoto JV, Rocha MG, Nascimento RTL, Moreira VV, Kashiwabara TGB. Candidiasis – a literature review. BJSCR. 2014;8(2):75–82.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sardi JC, Scorzoni L, Bernardi T, Fusco-Almeida AM, Mendes Giannini MJ. Candida species: current epidemiology, pathogenicity, biofilm formation, natural antifungal products and new therapeutic options. J Med Microbiol. 2013;62(Pt 1):10–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fidel PLJ. Immunity to Candida. Oral Dis. 2002;8(Suppl. 2):69–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gonçalves B, Ferreira C, Alves CT, Henriques M, Azeredo J, Silva S. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2015;21:1–23.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Waugh MA. Balanitis. Dermatol Clin. 1998;16(4):757–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jayatilake JAMS, Tulakaratne WM, Panagoda GJ. Candidal onychomycosis: a mini-review. Mycopathologia. 2009;168:165–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Farah CS, Lynch N, McCullough MJ. Oral fungal infections: an update for the general practitioner. Aust Dent J. 2010;55(1 Suppl):48–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Colombo AL, Guimarães T, Camargo LFA, et al. Brazilian guidelines for the management of candidiasis – a joint meeting report of three medical societies: Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia, Sociedade Paulistana de Infectologia and Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical. Braz J Infect Dis. 2013;17(3):283–312.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ameen M, Lear JT, Madan V, Mohd Mustapa MF, Richardson M. British Association os Dermatologists guidelines for onychomycosis 2014. Brit J Dermatol. 2014;171:937–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Peter G, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by infectious diseases society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(4):409–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mahajan VK. Sporotrichosis: an overview and therapeutic options. Dermatol Res Pract. 2014;2014:272376. doi: Epub 2014 Dec 29CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rosa AC, Scroferneker ML, Vettorato R, et al. Epidemiology of sporotrichosis: a study of 304 cases in Brazil. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;52:451–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vásquez-del-Mercado E, Arenas R, Padilla-Desgarenes C. Sporotrichosis. Clin Dermatol. 2012;30:437–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ramos-e-Silva M, Vasconcelos C, Carneiro S, Cestari T. Sporotrichosis. Clin Dermatol. 2007;25:181–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Queiroz-Telles F, McGinnis MR, Saljin I, Graybill JR. Subcutaneous mycoses. Infect Dis Clin N Am. 2013;17:59–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Araujo T, Marques AC, Kerdel F. Sporotrichosis. Int J Dermatol. 2001;40:737–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Morris-Jones R. Sporotrichosis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2002;27(6):427–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Correia RTM, Valente NYS, Criado PR, Martins JEC. Chromoblastomycosis: study of 27 cases and review of medical literature. An Bras Dermatol. 2010;85(4):448–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Krzyściak PM, Piaszczyńska MP, Piaszczyński M. Chromoblastomycosis. Postep Derm Alergol. 2014;5:310–21.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Torres-Guerrero E, Isa-Isa R, Isa M, Arenas R. Chromoblastomycosis. Clin Dermatol. 2012;30:403–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Spiker A, Ferringe T. Chromoblastomycosis. Cutis. 2015;96(4):224. 267–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Queiroz-Telles F, et al. Subcutaneous mycoses. Infect Dis Clin N Am. 2003;17(1):59–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Minotto R, Bernardi CDV, Mallmann LF, Edelweiss MIA, Scroferneker ML. Chromoblastomycosis: a review of 100 cases in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;44:585–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Severo CB, Oliveira FM, Pilar EFS, Severo LC. Phaeohyphomycosis: a clinical-epidemiological and diagnostic study of eighteen cases in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2012;107(7):854–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Isa-Isa R, García C, Isa M, Arenas R. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis (mycotic cyst). Clin Dermatol. 2012;30:425–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Revankar SG, Patterson JE, Sutton DA, Pullen R, Rinaldi MG. Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis: review of an emerging mycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:467–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Seyedmousav S, Netea MG, Mouton JW, Melchers WJG, Verweij PE, de Hoog GS. Black yeasts and their filamentous relatives: principles of pathogenesis and host defense. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2014;27(3):527–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Revankar SG. Phaeohyphomycosis. Infect Dis Clin N Am. 2006;20:609–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Revankar SG. Dematiaceous fungi. Mycoses. 2007;50:91–101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Naggie S, Perfect JR. Molds: hyalohyphomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis and zygomycosis. Clin Chest Med. 2009;30:337–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Varkey JB, Perfect JR. Rare and emerging fungal pulmonary infections. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;29(2):121–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tortorano AM, et al. ESCMID and ECMM joint guidelines on diagnosis and management of hyalohyphomycosis: Fusarium spp., Scedosporium spp. and others. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;20(Suppl. 3):27–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Enoch DA, Ludlam HA, Brown NM. Invasive fungal infections: a review of epidemiology and management options. Microbiology. 2006;55:809–18.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cornely OA. Aspergillus to zygomycetes: causes, risk factors, prevention, and treatment of invasive fungal infections. Infection. 2008;36:296–313.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ramos-E-Silva M, Aguiar-Santos-Vilela F, Cardoso-de-Brito A, Coelho-Carneiro S. Lobomycosis. Literature review and future perspectives. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2009;100(Suppl 1):92–100.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Francesconi VA, Klein AP, Santos AP, Ramasawmy R, Francesconi F. Lobomycosis: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2014;10:851–60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Talhari S, Talhari C. Lobomycosis. Clin Dermatol. 2012;30(4):420–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nenoff P, Van de Sande WWJ, Fahal AH, Reinel D. Eumycetoma and actinomycetoma – an update on causative agents, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics and therapy. JEADV. 2015;29:1873–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Welsh O, Vera-Cabrera L, Salinas-Carmona MC. Mycetoma. Clin Dermatol. 2007;25:195–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Estrada R, Chávez-López G, Estrada-Chávez G, López-Martínez R, Welsh O. Eumycetoma. Clin Dermatol. 2012;30:389–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Barnetson RS, Milne LJ. Mycetoma. Br J Dermatol. 1978;99(2):227–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Barry SM. Mycetoma. Rev Argent Dermatol. 2009;90:50–62.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ameen M, Arenas R. Developments in the management of mycetomas. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2008;34:1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Welsh O, Al-Abdely HM, Salinas-Carmona MC, Fahal AH. Mycetoma medical therapy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8(10):e3218.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Muszewska A, Pawłowska J, Krzyściak P. Biology, systematics, and clinical manifestations of Zygomycota infections. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014;33(8):1273–87.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Pemán J, Salavert M. Enfermedad fúngica invasora por Scedosporium, Fusarium y Mucor. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2014;31(4):242–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    El-Shabrawi MH, Arnaout H, Madkour L, Kamal NM. Entomophthoromycosis: a challenging emerging disease. Mycoses. 2014;57(Suppl 3):132–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Tacke D, Koehler P, Markiefka B, Cornely OA. Our 2014 approach to mucormycosis. Mycoses. 2014;57(9):519–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lackner M, Caramalho R, Lass-Flörl C. Laboratory diagnosis of mucormycosis: current status and future perspectives. Future Microbiol. 2014;9(5):683–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fortes MRP, Miot HA, Kurokawa CS, Marques MEA, Marques SA. Immunology of paracoccidioidomycosis. An Bras Dermatol. 2011;86(3):516–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Martinez R. Epidemiology of paracoccidioidomycosis. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2015;57(Suppl 19):11–20.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Marques SA. Paracoccidioidomycosis. Clin Dermatol. 2012;30(6):610–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    de Oliveira HC, Assato PA, Marcos CM, Scorzoni L, de Paula ESAC, da Silva J d F, et al. Paracoccidioides-host interaction: an overview on recent advances in the Paracoccidioidomycosis. Front Microbiol. 2015;6:1319.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bocca AL, Amaral AC, Marcus Melo Teixeira MM, Sato P, Shikanai-Yasuda MA, MSS F. Paracoccidioidomycosis: eco-epidemiology, taxonomy and clinical and therapeutic issues. Future Microbiol. 2013;8(9):1177–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Marques SA. Paracoccidioidomycosis: epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and treatment up-dating. An Bras Dermatol. 2013;88(5):700–11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ramos-e-Silva M, Saraiva LES. Paracoccidioidomycosis. Dermatol Clin. 2008;26(2):257–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    da Silva J d F, de Oliveira HC, Marcos CM, Assato PA, Fusco-Almeida AM, Mendes-Giannini MJ. Advances and challenges in paracoccidioidomycosis serology caused by Paracoccidioides species complex: an update. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2016;84(1):87–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Garcia-Garcia SC, Salas-Alanis JC, Gomez-Flores M, Gonzalez-Gonzalez SE, Vera-Cabrera L, Ocampo-Candiani J. Coccidioidomycosis and the skin: a comprehensive review. An Bras Dermatol. 2015;90(5):610–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Duarte-Escalante E, Frías-De-León MG, Zúñiga G, Martínez-Herrera E, Acosta-Altamirano G, Reyes-Montes MR. Molecular markers in the epidemiology and diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2014;31(1):49–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ampel NM. The treatment of coccidioidomycosis. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2015;57(Suppl 19):51–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Colombo AL, Tobón A, Restrepo A, Queiroz-Telles F, Nucci M. Epidemiology of endemic systemic fungal infections in Latin America. Med Mycol. 2011;49(8):785–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Adenis AA, Aznar C, Couppié P. Histoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients: a review of new developments and remaining gaps. Curr Trop Med Rep. 2014;1:119–28.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Chang P, Rodas C. Skin lesions in histoplasmosis. Clin Dermatol. 2012;30(6):592–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Fernandez-Flores A, Saeb-Lima M, Arenas-Guzman R. Morphological findings of deep cutaneous fungal infections. Am J Dermatopathol. 2014;36(7):531–53. quiz 554-6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gullo FP, Rossi SA, Sardi Jde C, Teodoro VL, Mendes-Giannini MJ, Fusco-Almeida AM. Cryptococcosis: epidemiology, fungal resistance, and new alternatives for treatment. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;32(11):1377–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    La Hoz RM, Pappas PG. Cryptococcal infections: changing epidemiology and implications for therapy. Drugs. 2013;73(6):495–504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kothiwala SK, Prajapat M, Kuldeep CM, Jindal A. Cryptococcal panniculitis in a renal transplant recipient: case report and review of literature. J Dermatol Case Rep. 2015;9(3):76–80.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Perfect JR, Bicanic T. Cryptococcosis diagnosis and treatment: what do we know now. Fungal Genet Biol. 2015;78:49–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Suggested Literature

  1. Richardson MD, Warnock DW. Fungal infection: diagnosis and management. 4th ed. Chichester: WileyBlackwell; 2012.Google Scholar
  2. Ameen M, Lear JT, Madan V, Mohd Mustapa MF, Richardson M. British Association of Dermatologists’ guidelines for the management of onychomycosis 2014. Br J Dermatol. 2014;171(5):937–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Framil VM d S, MSC M, Szeszs MW, Zaitz C. Novos aspectos na evolução clínica da pitiríase versicolor. An Bras Dermatol. 2011;86(6):1135–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Marques SA. Paracoccidioidomicose: atualização epidemiológica, clínica, diagnóstica e terapêutica. An Bras Dermatol. 2013;88(5):701–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Guarner J, Brandt ME. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011;24(2):247–80.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raíssa Londero Chemello
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rafaella Daboit Castagna
    • 1
  • Taciana Cappelletti
    • 2
  • Juliana Mazzoleni Stramari
    • 3
  1. 1.Service of Dermatology, Federal University of Santa MariaSanta MariaBrazil
  2. 2.Hospital Universitário de Santa MariaSanta MariaBrazil
  3. 3.Federal University of Santa MariaSanta MariaBrazil

Personalised recommendations