Dyes and Pigments: Their Structure and Properties

  • Ahmet Gürses
  • Metin Açıkyıldız
  • Kübra Güneş
  • M. Sadi Gürses
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science book series (BRIEFSMOLECULAR)


Dyes and pigments are the most important colorants used to add a color or to change the color of something. They are widely used in the textile, pharmaceutical, food, cosmetics, plastics, paint, ink, photographic and paper industries. Dyes are colored substances which are soluble or go into solution during the application process and impart color by selective absorption of light. Pigments are colored, colorless, or fluorescent particulate organic or inorganic finely divided solids which are usually insoluble in, and essentially chemically unaffected by, the vehicle or medium in which they are incorporated. On the other hand, the color, which is highly dependent on the chemical and physical properties of a matter, is a result of the interaction between light and substance. This chapter is focused on the chemical and structural properties of dyes and pigments, as well as the relationship between light and color.


Dye Pigment Colorant Chromophore Auxochrome Color 


  1. Akaoui SE (1976) High temperature steaming for dye fixation in polyester-cotton blends. Master Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, USAGoogle Scholar
  2. Asiri AM (2001) Organometallic dyes: Part 1. Synthesis of orange to cyan dyes based on donor-conjugated-acceptor-chromogenes using ferrocene as the donor group. Appl Organomet Chem 15:907–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barden TC (2010) Indoles: industrial, agricultural and over-the-counter uses. In: Gribble GW (ed) Heterocyclic scaffolds II: reactions and applications of indoles. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  4. Baser I, Inanici Y (1990) Dyestuff chemistry. Marmara University Pub, IstanbulGoogle Scholar
  5. Broadbent AD (2001) Basic principles of textile coloration. Society of Dyers and Colourists, West Yorkshire, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  6. Burkinshaw SM (2016) Physico-chemical aspects of textile coloration. Wiley, Hoboken, New JerseyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carmen Z, Daniela S (2012) Textile organic dyes—characteristics, polluting effects and separation/elimination procedures from industrial effluents—a critical overview. In: Puzyn T (ed) Organic pollutants ten years after the stockholm convention—environmental and analytical update. InTech Press, Crotia, pp 55–86Google Scholar
  8. Chakraborty JN (2010) Colouring materials. In: Chakraborty JN (ed) Fundamentals and practices in colouration of textiles New Delhi. Woodhead Publishing, IndiaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chequer FMD, de Oliveira GAR, Ferraz ERA, Cardoso JC, Zanoni MVB, de Oliveira DP (2013) Textile dyes: dyeing process and environmental impact. In: Gunay M (ed) Eco-friendly textile dyeing and finishing. InTech Press, CrotiaGoogle Scholar
  10. Chittka L, Waser NM (1997) Why red flowers are not invisible to bees. Isr J Plant Sci 45:169–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Edge KJ (2003) Wall color of patient’s room: effects on recovery. Master Thesis. Unıversıty of Florıda, USAGoogle Scholar
  12. Gangani BJ (2006) Synthesis and physico-chemical studies of 1, 1’-substituted phenyl cyclohexane. Ph. D. Thesis. Saurashtra University, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  13. Gordon PF, Gregory P (1987) Organic chemistry in colour. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Griffiths J (1990) Introduction: the evolution of present-day dye technology. In: Waring DR, Hallas G (eds) The chemistry and application of dyes. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Hossain I (2014). Investigation into cotton knit dyeing with reactive dyes to achieve right first time (RFT) shade. Master Thesis. Daffodil International University, BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  16. IARC (2010) Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans vol 99 some aromatic amines, organic dyes, and related exposures, Lyon, FranceGoogle Scholar
  17. Iqbal M (2008) Textile dyes. Rahber Publishers, PakistanGoogle Scholar
  18. Jones RO (2015) Density functional theory: its origins, rise to prominence, and future. Rev Mod Phys 87(3):897–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kiernan JA (2001) Classification and naming of dyes, stains and fluorochromes. Biotechnol Histochem 76(5–6):261–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kirk-Othmer (1998a) Encyclopedia of chemical technology fourth edition, vol 17. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Kirk-Othmer (1998b) Encyclopedia of chemical technology fourth edition, vol 19. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Kirk-Othmer (1998c) Encyclopedia of chemical technology fourth edition, vol 6. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Kumar A (2013) Adsorptive removal of Rhodamine B (dye) using low cost adsorbents. Master Thesis. National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  24. Lewis GN (1916) The atom and the molecule. J Am Chem Soc 38(4):762–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Marsden R (1982) The synthesis and examination of azo dyes derived from novel coupler. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Leeds, UKGoogle Scholar
  26. Merchak P (2012) Colored organic pigments. In: Koleske JV (ed) Paint and coating testing manual: 15th edition of the gardner-sward handbook. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  27. Nwokonkwo DC (2013) Synthesis of 2-(1,3-Dihydro-3-Oxo-2h-Pyridylpyrr-2-Ylidene)-1, 2-Dihydro- 3h- Pyridylpyrrol- 3- One. IOSR J Appl Chem 4(6):74–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pauling L (1939) A theory of the color of dyes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 25(11):577–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pereira L, Alves M (2012) Dyes-environmental impact and remediation. In: Malik A, Grohmann E (eds) Environmental protection strategies for sustainable development, strategies for sustainability. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Rothon R (2012) Pigment and nanopigment dispersion technologies. Smithers Rapra PublishingGoogle Scholar
  31. Shaik S (2007) The lewis legacy: the chemical bond-a territory and heartland of chemistry. J Comput Chem 28:51–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Singh HB, Bharati KA (2014) Handbook of natural dyes and pigments. Woodhead Publishing, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  33. Yadav LDS (2005) Organic spectroscopy. Springer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhang Q (2010) Nanocolarants. In: Sattler KD (ed) Handbook of nanophysics: functional nanomaterials. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Zollinger H (1999) Color: a multidisciplinary approach. Wiley, Zürich SwitzerlandCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zollinger H (2003) Colour chemistry: synthesis, properties, and applications of organic dyes and pigments. Wiley, Zürich SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmet Gürses
    • 1
  • Metin Açıkyıldız
    • 2
  • Kübra Güneş
    • 3
  • M. Sadi Gürses
    • 4
  1. 1.Kazım Karabekir Eğitim FakültesiAtatürk ÜniversitesiErzurumTurkey
  2. 2.Kilis 7 Aralık UniversityKilisTurkey
  3. 3.Atatürk UniversityErzurumTurkey
  4. 4.Koç UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations