Advertisement

Building Farm Resilience in a Changing Climate: Challenges, Potentials, and Ways Forward for Smallholder Cocoa Production in Bolivia

  • Johanna JacobiEmail author
  • Patrick Bottazzi
  • Maria Isabel Pillco
  • Monika Schneider
  • Stephan Rist

Abstract

Migration from the Bolivian Altiplano to the Amazonian lowlands poses a number of challenges related to climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. Alto Beni, located in the Bolivian Yungas at the interface between two altitudinal zones, is a critical area in this respect. Unsustainable land use practices are leading to soil erosion, shallow landslides, as well as forest and biodiversity loss. Settlers from the Altiplano see themselves confronted with an ecosystem that does not support the agricultural systems they were once used to. Soil degradation and government incentives have promoted migration further into the rainforest, creating pressure on local indigenous groups and biodiversity. The best-suited land use system for the fragile soils and ecosystems in Alto Beni is diversified agroforestry, which is often combined with a cash crop such as cocoa or coffee. Many farmers practising such a system have organic certification and achieve a premium price for their cash crops. However, cocoa farmers in Alto Beni face many challenges. Prolonged droughts, heavy rains, floods, increased heat, and plant diseases are mentioned most by cocoa farmers. In this study we compile results from a research project on the resilience of organic and nonorganic cocoa farms to external risk factors and discuss them in the context of climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction, and migration. Cocoa farmers who belong to a cooperative and had organic certification achieved higher resilience indicators than others, because they tended to cultivate cocoa in diversified agroforestry systems. Cooperatives fostered agroforestry through capacity-building, knowledge exchange, extension services, and awareness-raising. They also provided social insurances and enhanced mutual support among their members. Challenges within established cooperatives such as lack of technical support to farmers and knowledge exchange within and between organizations can hamper resilience building. Finally, the inclusion of new farmers into cocoa cooperatives seems critical to reducing outmigration and the reproduction of non-sustainable practices in other fragile areas. Multiple challenges remain to be addressed, however, including the enhancement of solidarity economy networks and their extension sectors other than export crops.

Keywords

Farm resilience Climate change Bolivia-Organic certification-Cocoa 

References

  1. Adams C, Harris M, Murrieta R (2009) Amazon peasant societies in a changing environment. Springer, Sao PaoloCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adger N (2003) Building resilience to promote sustainability. Update IHDP, Newsletter of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change 2(3)Google Scholar
  3. Adger WN (2000) Social end ecological resilience: are they related? Progr Hum Geogr 24(3):18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Altieri M, Nicholls C (2013) The adaptation and mitigation potential of traditional agriculture in a changing climate. Clim Change:1–13Google Scholar
  5. Altieri MA, Koohafkan P (2008) Enduring Farms: Climate Change, Smallholders and Traditional Farming Communities. Third World Netw Environ Dev Ser 6:72Google Scholar
  6. Altieri MA, Koohafkan P, Nicholls CI (2014) Strengthening resilience of modern farming systems: a key prerequisite for sustainable agricultural production in an era of climate change. Third World Netbook Briefing Paper 70:8Google Scholar
  7. Babin N (2014) The coffee crisis, fair trade, and agroecological transformation: impacts on land-use change in Costa Rica. Agroecol Sust Food Syst 39(1):99–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baumgartner R, Hoegger R, Rist S (2011) Hacia estrategias de vida sostenibles—culturas, recursos y cambios en India y Bolivia. DSpace Repository, La PazGoogle Scholar
  9. Bebbington A, Quisbert J, Trujillo G (1996) Technology and rural development strategies in a small farmer organization: lessons from Bolivia for rural policy and practice. Public Admin Dev 16:195–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boillat S, Berkes F (2013) Perception and interpretation of climate change among Quechua farmers of Bolivia: indigenous knowledge as a resource for adaptive capacity. Ecol Soc 18(4):21Google Scholar
  11. Borron S (2006) Building resilience for an unpredictable future: how organic agriculture can help farmers to adapt to climate change. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  12. Bottazzi P (2008) Linking 'Socio-' and 'Bio-' Diversity: The Stakes of Indigenous and Non-indigenous Co-management in the Bolivian Lowlands. In: Galvin M, Haller T (eds) People, Protected Areas and Global Change: Participatory Conservation in Latin America, Africa, Asia and Europe. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South. Geographica Bernensia, Bern, pp 81–110Google Scholar
  13. Bottazzi P (2014) Une écologie politique des territoires tsimane’ d’Amazonie bolivienne: “notre grande maison”. Karthala/Graduate Institute Publications, Paris, GenèveGoogle Scholar
  14. Bottazzi P, Crespo D, Soria H, Dao H, Benavides JP, Swarzer S, Rist S (2014) Carbon sequestration in community forests: trade-offs and synergies, multiple outcomes, and institutional diversity in the Bolivian Amazon. Dev Change 45(1):105–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bottazzi P, Reyes-García V, Crespo D, Marthez-Stiefel S-L, Galvarro HS, Jacobi J, Clavijo M, Rist S (2013) Productive diversification and sustainable use of complex social-ecological systems: a comparative study of indigenous and settler communities in the Bolivian Amazon. Agroecol Sust Food Syst 38(2):137–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brandt R, Mathez-Stiefel SL, Lachmuth S, Hensen I, Rist S (2013) Knowledge and valuation of Andean agroforestry species: the role of sex, age, and migration among members of a rural community in Bolivia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 9(1)Google Scholar
  17. Cabell JF, Oelofse M (2012) An indicator framework for assessing agroecosystem resilience. Ecol Soc 17(1):18Google Scholar
  18. Carpenter S, Walker B, Anderies JM, Abel N (2001) From metaphor to measurement: resilience of what to what? Ecosystems 4(8):765–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Choquehuanca D (2009) El Vivir Bien como Respuesta a la Crisis Global. Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, La PazGoogle Scholar
  20. DED (1997) Guía para el Establecimiento de Sistemas Agroforestales. Servicio Alemán de Cooperación Social-Técnica (DED), La PazGoogle Scholar
  21. DFID (1999) Sustainable livelihoods guidance sheets. UK Department for International Development, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. Elbers J (2002) Agrarkolonisation im Alto Beni Landschafts- und politisch-ökologische Entwicklungsforschung in einem Kolonisationsgebiet in den Tropen Boliviens. Doctoral thesis, Heinrich-Heine-University, DuesseldorfGoogle Scholar
  23. Folke C (2006) Resilience: the emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analysis. Glob Environ Chang 16:253–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Folke C, Carpenter SR, Walker B, Scheffer M, Chapin T, Rockstrom J (2010) Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability. Ecol Soc 15(4)Google Scholar
  25. Garming H, Guardia S, Pocasangre L, Staver C (2011) Farmers’ community enterprise for marketing organic bananas from Alto Beni, Bolivia: impacts and threats. Enterprise Dev Microfinance 22:210–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gyau A, Smoot K, Kouame C, Diby L, Kahia J, Ofori D (2014) Farmer attitudes and intentions towards trees in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) farms in Côte d’Ivoire. Agroforest Syst 88:1035–10451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Halberg N, Muller A (2013) Organic agriculture, livelihoods and development. In: Halberg N, Muller A (eds) Organic agriculture for sustainable livelihoods. Earthscan, London, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  28. Hillenkamp I (2006) Central de Cooperativas El Ceibo: Un Estudio con Enfoque de Economía Solidaria. PhD, Universidad de Ginebra, GeneveGoogle Scholar
  29. Holling CS (1973) Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 4:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Holt-Giménez E (2002) Measuring farmers’ agroecological resistance after Hurricane Mitch in Nicaragua: a case study in participatory, sustainable land management impact monitoring. Agr Ecosyst Environ 93(1–3):87–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hufty M, Haakenstad A (2011) Reduced emissions for deforestation and degradation: a critical review. Consilience J Sust Dev 5(1):1–24Google Scholar
  32. IAASTD (2008) Agriculture at a crossroads. Synthesis report. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  33. ICRAF (2014) Trees for life: creating a more prosperous future through agroforestry. World Agroforestry Centre, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  34. IFAD (2012) Organic agriculture: a promising alternative for small farmers Thematic evaluationGoogle Scholar
  35. Ifejika Speranza C (2010) Resilient adaptation to climate change in African agriculture. DIE studies. Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik, BonnGoogle Scholar
  36. Jacobi J, Andres C, Schneider M, Pillco MM, Calizaya P, Rist S (2014) Carbon stocks, tree diversity, and the role of organic certification in different cocoa production systems in Alto Beni, Bolivia. Agroforest Syst 88:1117–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jacobi J, Schneider M, Bottazzi P, Pillco M, Calizaya P, Rist S (2013) Agroecosystem resilience and farmers’ perceptions of climate change impacts in cocoa farms in Alto Beni, Bolivia. Renew Agric Food Syst. Online firstGoogle Scholar
  38. Jacobi J, Bottazzi P, Schneider M, Huber S, Weidmann S, Rist S (2015a) Social–ecological resilience in organic and non-organic cocoa farming systems in Bolivia. Agroecol Sust Food Syst 39:798–823Google Scholar
  39. Jacobi J, Zanella MA, Mariscal M, Lucana AC, Rist S (2015b) Alternatives for the sustainable development of Alto Beni, Bolivia. In: Rosendahl J, Weigelt J, Durand JM, Zanella MA (eds) Pro-poor resource governance under changing climates. IASS, PotsdamGoogle Scholar
  40. Lin BB (2007) Agroforestry management as an adaptive strategy against potential microclimate extremes in coffee agriculture. Agric For Meteorol 144(1–2):85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Milestad R (2003) Building farm resilience—challenges and prospects for organic farming. Doctoral thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  42. Moser G (2010) Response of cocoa trees (Theobroma cacao) to a 13-month desiccation period in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Agroforest Syst 71:171–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nair PKR (2011) Carbon sequestration studies in agroforestry systems: a reality-check. Agroforest Syst 86(2):243–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nicholls CI, Ríos Osorio LA, Altieri MA (eds) (2013) Agroecología y resiliencia socioecológica: adaptándose al cambio climático. Red Iberoamericana de Agroecología para el Desarrollo de Sistemas Agrícolas Resilientes al Cambio Climático (REDAGRES), Red Adscrita al programa Iboamericano de Ciencia y Tecnología para el Desarrollo (CYTED), Sociedad Científica Latinoamericana de Agroecología (SOCLA), MedellínGoogle Scholar
  45. Obrist B, Pfeiffer C, Henley R (2010) Multi-layered social resilience: a new approach in mitigation research. Progr Dev Stud 10(4):283–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ostrom E (1990) Governing the commons. The evolution of institutions for collective action. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Patton MQ (2002) Qualitative research & evaluation methods. Sage, Beverly Hills, CAGoogle Scholar
  48. Philpott SM, Lin BB, Jha S, Brines S (2008) A multi-scale assessment of hurricane impacts on agricultural landscapes based on land use and topographic features. Agr Ecosyst Environ 128:12–20Google Scholar
  49. Pokorny B, Scholz I, de Jong W (2013) REDD+ for the poor or the poor for REDD+? About the limitations of environmental policies in the Amazon and the potential of achieving environmental goals through pro-poor policies. Ecol Soc 18(2)Google Scholar
  50. Pretty J, Smith D (2004) Social capital in biodiversity conservation and management. Conserv Biol 18(3):631–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rice R, Greenberg A (2000) Cacao cultivation and the conservation of biological diversity. AMBIO J Hum Environ 29(3):167–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rist S (2006) Natural resources, sustainability and social learning processes—pathways towards co-production of knowledge for sustainable development. Habilitation, University of Bern, BernGoogle Scholar
  53. Ruf F, Schroth G (2004) Chocolate forests and monocultures: a historical review of cocoa growing and its conflicting role in tropical deforestation and forest conservation. In: Schroth G, Fonseca G, Harvey C, Gascon C, Vasconcelos HL, Izac AMN (eds) Agroforestry and biodiversity conservation in tropical landscapes. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 107–134Google Scholar
  54. Scialabba N (2013) organic agriculture’s contribution to sustainability. Paper presented at the USDA organic farming systems research conference, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  55. Somarriba E, Cerda R, Orozco L, Cifuentes M, Davila H, Espin T, Mavisoy H, Avila G, Alvarado E, Poveda V, Astorga C, Say E, Deheuvels O (2013) Carbon stocks and cocoa yields in agroforestry systems of Central America. Agr Ecosyst Environ 173:46–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tscharntke T, Clough Y, Bhagwat SA, Buchori D, Faust H, Hertel D, Hölscher D, Juhrbandt J, Kessler M, Perfecto I, Scherber C, Schroth G, Veldkamp E, Wanger TC (2011) Multifunctional shade-tree management in tropical agroforestry landscapes—a review. J Appl Ecol 48:619–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. UNCTAD (2013) Wake up before it is too late: make agriculture truly sustainable now for food security in a changing climate. Trade and environment reviewGoogle Scholar
  58. Verchot LV, Van Noordvik M, Kandji S, Tomich T, Ong C, Albrecht A, Mackensen J, Bantilan C, Anupama KV, Palm C (2007) Climate change: linking adaptation and mitigation through agroforestry. Mitig Adapt Strat Glob Chang 12:901–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. von Stosch K (2014) Indígenas y Campesinos en Alto Beni: Diferentes visiones en torno a tierra, territorio y recursos naturales. Fundación Tierra, La PazGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johanna Jacobi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Patrick Bottazzi
    • 2
  • Maria Isabel Pillco
    • 3
  • Monika Schneider
    • 4
  • Stephan Rist
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Development and EnvironmentUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  2. 2.Faculty of Geosciences and the EnvironmentUniversity of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  3. 3.Faculty of AgronomyUniversidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA)La PazBolivia
  4. 4.Research Institute of Organic AgricultureFrickSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations