Advertisement

Migration and Interaction between Madagascar and Eastern Africa, 500 BCE–1000 CE: An Archaeological Perspective

  • Anneli Ekblom
  • Paul Lane
  • Chantal Radimilahy
  • Jean-Aime Rakotoarisoa
  • Paul Sinclair
  • Malika Virah-Sawmy
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Series in Indian Ocean World Studies book series (IOWS)

Abstract

The debate on the peopling of Madagascar has long been dominated by historical linguistics and the observed similarities between Malagasy and Austronesian languages. It is clear from the linguistic evidence that there have been several periods of human contact with, or migration to, Madagascar—and that these also brought different domesticates to the island (Allibert 1998, 2007; Beaujard 2011a,b; Boivin et al. 2013). Genetics is currently the main tool being used to understand the peopling of Madagascar (Hurles et al. 2005; Tofanelli et al. 2009; Murray et al. 2012; Pierron et al. 2014). However, despite recent advances in the field of genetic studies we still know very little about either the first colonisation on Madagascar or about the contacts between the populations of Madagascar, the Austronesian influence zone, and the African mainland. Moreover, Vérin and Wright (1999) have warned that inferences from linguistic and genetic studies can be misleading, and that there is often a disjuncture between language and human biology on the one hand and material culture and identity on the other.

Keywords

Optically Stimulate Luminescence Archaeological Evidence Lithic Assemblage Landscape Transformation Chlorite Schist 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adamowicz, L. 1990. Newly Discovered Stone Age and Early Iron Age sites in Nampula Province, Northern Mozambique. In Urban Origins in Eastern Africa, ed. P.J.J. Sinclair and J.A. Rakotoarisoa, 137–198. Stockholm: Central Board of Swedish Antiquities.Google Scholar
  2. Adelaar, K.A. 2006. The Indonesian Migrations to Madagascar: Making Sense of the Multidisciplinary Evidence. In Austronesian Diaspora and The Ethnogenesis of People in the Indonesian Archipelago, ed. T. Simanjuntak et al., 205–232. Jakarta: LIPI Press.Google Scholar
  3. Allibert, C. 1988. Les contacts entre l’Arabie, le golfe Persique, l’Afrique orientale et Madagascar. Confrontation des documents écrits, des traditions orales et des données archéologiques récentes. Travaux de la Maison de l’Orient 16(1): 111–126.Google Scholar
  4. ———. 1992. Mayotte: archéologie du 8 e au 13 e siècle. INALCO, Paris: Fondation pour l’étude de l’archéologie de Mayotte.Google Scholar
  5. ———. 1997–1998. Note sur un terme antalaotse désignant le chat au Nord-Ouest de Madagascar et à Mayotte. Annuaire des Pays de l’Océan Indien 15: 135–142.Google Scholar
  6. ———. 1998. Austronesian Influences in the Western Indian Ocean. In Southeast Asian Archaeology 1994, vol 2, ed. P.-Y. Manguin, 205–214. Hull: Centre for Southeast Asian Studies.Google Scholar
  7. ———. 2007. Migration austronésienne et mise en place de la civilisation malgache. Lectures croisées: linguistique, archéologie, génétique, anthropologie culturelle. Diogène 2(218): 6–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. ———. 2012. Réflexions autour de Vohémar. Etudes Océan Indien 46–47: 149–160.Google Scholar
  9. Allibert, C., et al. 1990. Le site de Dembeni (Mayotte, Archipel des Comores). Études Océan Indien 11: 63–172.Google Scholar
  10. Amigues, F. 2012. La céramique dorée de Valence trouvée à Vohémar. Études Océan Indien 46–47: 75–90.Google Scholar
  11. Andersson, A. 2014. Connecting Continents: Setting an Agenda for Historical Archaeology of the Indian Ocean. Paper presented at the Indian Ocean Conference, Stanford University, Stanford, March.Google Scholar
  12. Battistini, R., and P. Vérin. 1967. Irodo et la tradition vohémarienne. Taloha 2: 22–46.Google Scholar
  13. ———. 1971. Témoignages archéologiques sur la côte vezo de l’embouchure de l’Onilahy à la Baie des Assassins. Taloha 4: 51–63.Google Scholar
  14. Battistini, R., P. Vérin, and R. Raison. 1963. Le site archéologique de Talaky. Annales de l’Université de Madagascar—Lettres 1: 111–142.Google Scholar
  15. Beaujard, P. 2007a. L’Afrique de l’Est, les Comores et Madagascar dans le système-monde eurasiatique et africain avant le 16è siècle. In L’Afrique et Madagascar, ed. D. Nativel and F. Rajaonah, 29–102. Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
  16. ———. 2007b. East Africa, the Comoros Islands and Madagascar before the Sixteenth Century: On a Neglected Part of the World-System. Azania 42: 15–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. ———. 2011a. The First Migrants to Madagascar and Their Introduction of Plants: Linguistic and Ethnological Evidence. Azania 46(2): 169–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. ———. 2011b. Les plantes cultivées apportées par les premiers migrants austronésiens à Madagascar. In Civilisations des Mondes Insulaires (Madagascar, Îles du Canal de Mozambique, Mascareignes, Polynésie, Guyanes). Mélanges en l’Honneur du Professeur Claude Allibert, ed. C. Radimilahy and N. Rajaonarimanana, 357–386. Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
  19. ———. 2012. Les mondes de l’Océan Indien, vol 2. Paris: Armand Colin.Google Scholar
  20. Bennett, T. 2011. Middle Stone Age Lithic Technology at Mvumu, Niassa, Mozambique. Master’s Thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary.Google Scholar
  21. Blench, Roger. 2007. New Palaeozoogeographical Evidence for the Settlement of Madagascar. Azania 42(1): 69–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. ———. 2010. Evidence for the Austronesian Voyages in the Indian Ocean. In Global Origins and Development of Seafaring, ed. A. Anderson et al., 239–248. Cambridge, UK: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.Google Scholar
  23. Bloch, M., and P. Vérin. 1966. Discovery of an Apparently Neolithic Artefact in Madagascar. Man 1(2): 240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Boivin, N., et al. 2013. East Africa and Madagascar in the Indian Ocean World. Journal of World Prehistory 26(3): 213–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bowler, J.M., et al. 2003. New Ages for Human Occupation and Climatic Change at Lake Mungo, Australia. Nature 421(6925): 837–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Breen, C., and P. Lane. 2003. Archaeological Approaches to East Africa’s Changing Seascapes. World Archaeology 35(3): 469–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Burney, D.A. 1987a. Late Quaternary Stratigraphic Charcoal Records from Madagascar. Quaternary Research 28(2): 274–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. ———. 1987b. Late Holocene Vegetational Change in Central Madagascar. Quaternary Research 28(1): 130–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. ———. 1993. Late Holocene Environmental Changes in Arid Southwestern Madagascar. Quaternary Research 40(1): 98–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Burney, D.A., et al. 2003. Sporormiella and the Late Holocene Extinctions in Madagascar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100(19): 10800–10805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. ———. 2004. A Chronology for Late Prehistoric Madagascar. Journal of Human Evolution 47(1–2): 25–63.Google Scholar
  32. Camoin, G.F., et al. 1997. Holocene Sea Level Changes and Reef Development in the Southwestern Indian Ocean. Coral Reefs 16(4): 247–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. ———. 2004. Late Glacial to Post Glacial Sea Levels in the Western Indian Ocean. Marine Geology 206(1–4): 119–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Capredon, M. 2010. Histoire biologique d’une population du sud-est malgache: les Antemoro. Unpublished Thesis, Université de la Réunion.Google Scholar
  35. Chami, F. 1992. Limbo: Early Iron-working in South-Eastern Tanzania. Azania 27(1): 45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. ———. 1998. A Review of Swahili Archaeology. African Archaeological Review 15(3): 199–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. ———. 1999c. The Early Iron Age on Mafia Island and Its Relationship with the Mainland. Azania 34(1): 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. ———. 2002c. The Excavations of Kaole Ruins. In Southern Africa and the Swahili World, ed. F. Chami et al., 25–49. Dar-es-Salaam: University Press.Google Scholar
  39. ———. 2006. The Unity of Ancient African History: 3000 BC to AD 500. Dar es Salaam: E&D Ltd.Google Scholar
  40. Chami, F.A. 2004. The Archaeology of the Mafia Archipelago, Tanzania. In African Archaeology Network: Reports and Views, ed. F.A. Chami, G. Pwiti, and C. Radimilahy, 73–101. Dar es Salaam: Dar es Salaam University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Chami F., et al. 2003. New Evidence for Early Trade between Africa and South Asia. Paper presented in International Symposium: Archaeology of the Earliest North–Eastern Africa, Poznan Archaeological Museum, July.Google Scholar
  42. Chanudet, C. 1988. Contribution à l’étude du peuplement de l’île de Mohéli.’ thèse de doctorat de 3e cycle, INALCO, Paris.Google Scholar
  43. ———. 2011. Peuplement et traites négrières dans l’espace océan Indien occidental-Mer Rouge. In Civilisations des Mondes Insulaires, ed. C. Radimilahy and N. Rajaonarimanana, 415–432. Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
  44. Chittick, H.N. 1974. Kilwa: An Islamic Trading City on the East African Coast: The Finds, vol 2. Nairobi: The British Institute in East Africa.Google Scholar
  45. Clark, J.G.D. 1978. World Prehistory in New Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Compton, J.S. 2001. Holocene Sea-Level Fluctuations Inferred from the Evolution of Depositional Environments of the Southern Langebaan Lagoon Salt Marsh, South Africa. The Holocene 11(4): 395–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cox, M.P., et al. 2012. A Small Cohort of Island Southeast Asian Women Founded Madagascar. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.0012.Google Scholar
  48. Crossland, Z. 2001. Time and the Ancestors: Landscape Survey in the Andrantsay Region of Madagascar. Antiquity 75(290): 825–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. ———. 2014. Ancestral Encounters in Highland Madagascar: Material Signs and Traces of the Dead. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Crowley, B.E. 2010. A Refined Chronology of Prehistoric Madagascar and the Demise of the Mega Fauna; New Clues from Old Bones. Quaternary Science Reviews 29: 2592–2604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Crowther, A., et al. 2014. Iron Age Agriculture, Fishing and Trade in the Mafia Archipelago, Tanzania: New Evidence from Ukunju Cave. Azania 49(1): 21–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dewar, R.E. 1984. Extinctions in Madagascar. The Loss of the Subfossil Fauna. In Quaternary Extinctions. A Prehistoric Revolution, ed. P.S. Martin and R.G. Klein, 574–593. Tucson: University of Arizona.Google Scholar
  53. Dewar, R.E., and S. Rakotovololona. 1992. La chasse aux subfossiles: les preuves du 11e siècle au 13e siècle. Taloha 11: 5–15.Google Scholar
  54. Dewar, R.E., and H.T. Wright. 1993. The Culture History of Madagascar. Journal of World Prehistory 7(4): 417–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dewar R.E. et al. 2011. Early Settlement in the Region of Fenoarivo Atsinanana. In Civilisations des Mondes Insulaires, ed. C. Radimilahy and N. Rajaonarimanana, 677–740. Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
  56. Dewar, R.E., et al. 2013. Stone Tools and Foraging in Northern Madagascar Challenge Holocene Extinction Models. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110(31): 12583–12588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Domínguez-Rodrigo, M., et al. 2009. A New Protocol to Differentiate Trampling Marks from Butchery Cut Marks. Journal of Archaeological Science 36(12): 2643–2654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ekblom, A., et al. 2011. A Historical Ecology of Limpopo Natural Park and Lower Limpopo Valley. Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History 1(1): 1–291.Google Scholar
  59. Flacourt, E. de 2007. Histoire de la Grande Isle Madagascar [1658]. Edited and Commentary by Claude Allibert. Paris: Inalco/Karthala.Google Scholar
  60. Fleisher, J., and S. Wynne-Jones. 2011. Ceramics and the Early Swahili: Deconstructing the early Tana Tradition. African Archaeological Review 28(4): 245–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fleisher, J., et al. 2015. When Did the Swahili Become Maritime? American Anthropologist 117(1): 100–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Freeman-Grenville, G.S.P. 1962. The East African Coast (Select Documents from the First to the Earlier Nineteenth Century). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Gasse, F., and E. Van Campo. 2001. Late Quaternary Environmental Changes from a Pollen and Diatom Record in the Southern Tropics (Lake Tritrivakely, Madagascar). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 167(3–4): 287–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gommery, D., and B. Ramanivosoa. 2013. Subfossiles et première présence humaine à Madagascar. In Understanding Landscapes from Land Discovery to their Spatial Organization, ed. F. Djindjian and S. Robert, 15–25. BAR International Series. Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  65. Gommery, D., et al. 2011. Les plus anciennes traces d’activités anthropiques de Madagascar sur des ossements d’hippopotames subfossiles d’Anjohibe (Province de Mahajanga). Comptes Rendus Palevol 10(4): 271–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Griffin, W.D. 2012. Notes on the Chlorite-Schist Industry of Madagascar’s Southeast Coast. Études Océan Indien 46–47: 221–273.Google Scholar
  67. Gueunier, N. 2004. Le dialecte malgache de Mayotte (Comores): une discussion dialectologique et sociolinguistique. Faits de Langues 23–24: 397–420.Google Scholar
  68. Hébert, J.-C. 1998. Mayotte au XVIIIe siècle. Des pirates européens, aux pirates malgaches en passant par les sultans batailleurs et les traitants d’esclaves français. Archives Orales 4–5: 11–95.Google Scholar
  69. Helm, R. 2000. Conflicting Histories: The Archaeology of Ironworking, Farming Communities in the Central and Southern Coast Region of Kenya. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Bristol.Google Scholar
  70. Helm, R., et al. 2012. Exploring Agriculture, Interaction and Trade on the Eastern African Littoral: Preliminary Results from Kenya. Azania 47(1): 39–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Horton, M. 1996. Shanga. The Archaeology of a Muslim Trading Community on the Coast of East Africa. London: British Institute in Eastern Africa.Google Scholar
  72. Huffman, T.N. 2007. Handbook to the Iron Age: The Archaeology of Pre-colonial Farming Societies in Southern Africa. Scottsville: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.Google Scholar
  73. Hurles, M.E., et al. 2005. The Dual Origin of the Malagasy in Island Southeast Asia and East Africa: Evidence from Maternal and Paternal Lineages. American Journal of Human Genetics 76(5): 894–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Jacobs, Z., and R.G. Roberts. 2007. Advances in Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dating of Individual Grains of Quartz from Archaeological Deposits. Evolutionary Anthropology 16(6): 210–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jacobs, Z., et al. 2006. Extending the Chronology of Deposits at Blombos Cave, South Africa, Back to 140 ka Using Optical Dating of Single and Multiple Grains of Quartz. Journal of Human Evolution 51(3): 255–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. ———. 2011. Single-grain OSL dating at La Grotte des Contrebandiers (‘Smugglers’ Cave’), Morocco: Improved Age Constraints for the Middle Palaeolithic Levels. Journal of Archaeological Science 38(12): 3631–3643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Juma, A.M. 1996. The Swahili and the Mediterranean Worlds: Pottery of the Late Roman Period From Zanzibar. Antiquity 70(267): 148–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. ———. 2004. Unguja Ukuu on Zanzibar: An Archaeological Study of Early Urbanism. Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University.Google Scholar
  79. Kellum-Ottino, M. 1972. Discovery of a Neolithic Adze in Madagascar. Asian Perspectives 15(1): 83–86.Google Scholar
  80. Kohtamäki, M. 2014. Transitions: A Landscape Approach to Social and Cultural Changes in Southern Mozambique, 500 BC–800 AD. PhD Thesis, Uppsala University, Uppsala.Google Scholar
  81. Kusimba, C.M. 1999. The Rise and Fall of Swahili States. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira.Google Scholar
  82. LaViolette, A., and J. Fleisher. 2009. The Urban History of a Rural Place: Swahili Archaeology on Pemba Island, Tanzania, 700–1500 AD. International Journal of African Historical Studies 42(3): 433–455.Google Scholar
  83. Liszkowski H.D. 2011. Les décors des céramiques communes de la période archaïque à Mayotte: contribution à l’étude d’un faciès régional. In Civilisations des Mondes Insulaires, ed. C. Radimilahy and N. Rajaonarimanana, 633–653. Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
  84. MacPhee, R.D.E., and D.A. Burney. 1991. Dating of Modified Femora of Extinct Dwarf Hippopotamus from Southern Madagascar: Implications for Constraining Human Colonization and Vertebrate Extinction Events. Journal of Archaeological Science 18: 695–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. MacPhee, R.D.E., D.A. Burney, and N.A. Wells. 1985. Early Holocene chronolohu and Environment of Ampasambazimba, a Malagasy Subfossil Lemus Site. International Journal of Primatology 6(5): 463–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Madiquida, H. 2007. The Iron-using Communities of the Cape Delgado Coast from 1000 AD: Studies in Global Archaeology, vol. 8. Uppsala: Uppsala University Press.Google Scholar
  87. ———. 2015. Archaeological and Historical Reconstructions of the Foraging and Farming Communities of the Lower Zambezi: From the Mid Holocene to the Second Millennium AD. PhD Thesis, Uppsala University, Uppsala.Google Scholar
  88. Martin, N. 2010. Les productions céramiques de l’océan Indien occidental: Implications culturelles au carrefour d’influences. Unpublished PhD Thesis Paris, INALCO.Google Scholar
  89. Martin, P.S. 1984. Prehistoric Overkill: The Global Model. In Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution, ed. P.S. Martin and R.G. Klein, 354–403. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  90. Matsumoto, K., and D.A. Burney. 1994. Late Holocene Environments at Lake Mitsinjo, Northwestern Madagascar. The Holocene 4(1): 16–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mercader, J., et al. 2012. Cosmogenic Nuclide Age Constraints on Middle Stone Age lithics from Niassa, Mozambique. Quaternary Science Reviews. 47(30): 116–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mille, A. 1970. Contribution à l’étude des villages fortifiés de l’Imerina ancien, vol. 2. Tananarive: Musée d’Art et d’Archéologie.Google Scholar
  93. Murray, A.S., and J.M. Olley. 2002. Precision and Accuracy in the Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dating of Sedimentary Quartz: A Status Review. Geochronometria 21: 1–16.Google Scholar
  94. Parker Pearson, M., et al. 2010. Pastoralists, Warriors and Colonists: The Archaeology of Southern Madagascar. Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  95. Pawlowicz, M. 2013. A Review of Ceramics from Tanzania, Malawi and Northern Mozambique, with Implications for Swahili Archaeology. African Archaeological Review 30(4): 367–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Perez, V.R., et al. 2005. Evidence of Early Butchery of Giant Lemurs in Madagascar. Journal of Human Evolution 49(6): 722–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pienaar, M. 2007. Dating the Stone Age at Rose Cottage Cave South Africa. PhD dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria.Google Scholar
  98. Pierron, D., et al. 2014. Genome Wide Evidence of Austronesian-Bantu Admixture and Cultural Reversion in a Hunter–Gatherer Group of Madagascar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(3): 936–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Quicker, N.A., et al. 2003. Optical and Thermoluminescence Dating of Middle Stone Age and Kintampo Bearing Sediments at Birimi, a Multi-component Archaeological Site in Ghana. Quaternary Science Reviews 22(10–13): 1291–1297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Radimilahy, C. 1981. Archéologie de l’Androy: sud de Madagascar. Recherche, Pédagogie et Culture 9(55): 62–65.Google Scholar
  101. ———. 1998. Mahilaka: An Archaeological Investigation of an Early Town in Northwestern Madagascar. Uppsala: Uppsala University Press.Google Scholar
  102. ———. 2009. Les sites archéologiques de Madagascar, que révèlent-ils? In Madagascar Fenêtres -Aperçus sur la culture malgache, ed. P. de Laboulaye, 96–109. Antananarivo: CITE.Google Scholar
  103. ———. 2011a. Contribution à l’archéologie du Sud-Ouest de Madagascar. In Civilisations des Mondes Insulaires, ed. C. Radimilahy and N. Rajaonarimanana, 825–853. Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
  104. ———. 2011b. L’archéologie des grandes embouchures, cas de l’Ivondro. Compte rendu du Colloque -Restitution des travaux archéologiques d’Ambatovy. Antananarivo: Académie Malagasy.Google Scholar
  105. Radimilahy, C. 2012. Réflexions sur la production pré-européenne du textile dans le Nord de Madagascar. Études Océan Indien 46–47: 161–176.Google Scholar
  106. ———. 2013. Madagascar: From Initial Settlement to the Growth of Kingdoms. In The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology, ed. P. Mitchell and P. Lane, 943–954. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  107. Radimilahy, Chantal M., and Zoë Crossland. 2015. Situating Madagascar: Indian Ocean Dynamics and Archaeological Histories. Azania 50(4): 495–518. doi: 10.1080/0067270X.2015.1102942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Radimilahy, C., B. Manjakahery, and L.M.A. Rakotozafy. 2006. Archaeology of St Augustine’s Bay, Lower and Middle Onilahy Valley. In Studies in the African Past, vol. 5. ed. J. Kinahan and J. Kinahan, 60–94. Tanzania: University of Dar es Salaam.Google Scholar
  109. Rafolo, A. 1989/1990. Les fouilles de Lohavohitra. Contribution à l’étude des aménagements d’un site ancien fortifié et perché du Vonizongo. Omaly sy Anio 29–32: 57–70.Google Scholar
  110. ———. 2000. Mixed cultures of Madagascar and the Other Islands of the Indian Ocean. In History of Humanity. Volume 4: From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century, ed. M.A. Al-Bakit, L. Bazin, and S.M. Cissoko, 531–537. Paris: Unesco.Google Scholar
  111. ———. 2008. Madagascar, carrefour des civilisations. Des origines du peuplement à la fin du XVIIIe siècle. In Christianisme et droits de l’homme à Madagascar, ed. G. Cipollone, 31–46. Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
  112. Rakotoarisoa, J.-A. 1998. Mille ans d’occupation humaine dans le Sud-Est de Madagascar- Anosy, une île au milieu des terres. Paris: L’Harmattan.Google Scholar
  113. ———. 2014. A Look at Cultural Heritage: A Contribution to the Cultural History of the Eastern Region of Madagascar Archaeological Sites between Mangoro and Ivondro. Ambatovy, Antananarivo.Google Scholar
  114. Rakotovololona, S. 1990. Premiers résultats de la fouille d’Ankadivory. In Urban Origins in Eastern Africa, ed. P.J.J. Sinclair and J.A. Rakotoarisoa, 85–90. Stockholm: Swedish Central Board of National Antiquities.Google Scholar
  115. ———. 1994. Ankadivory: témoin d’une culture de l’Imerina ancienne. Taloha 12: 7–24.Google Scholar
  116. Ramsay, P.J., and J.A.G. Cooper. 2002. Late Quaternary Sea-level Change in South Africa. Quaternary Research 57(1): 82–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Rasamuel, D. 2007. Fanongoavana. Une capitale princière malgache du XIVè siècle. Versailles: Quae.Google Scholar
  118. Rasoarifetra, B. 2012. Les perles de Vohémar, origine et marqueurs culturels. Études Océan Indien 46–47: 177–195.Google Scholar
  119. Scherurs, G., et al. 2012. The Rasikajy Civilisation in Northeast Madagascar: A Pre-European Chinese community. Études Océan Indien 46–47: 107–133.Google Scholar
  120. Shepherd, G. 1982. The Making of the Swahili: A View from the Southern end of the East African Coast. Paideuma 28: 129–148.Google Scholar
  121. Shipton, C., et al. 2013. Intersections, Networks and the Genesis of Social Complexity on the Nyali Coast of East Africa. African Archaeological Review 30(4): 427–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. ———. 2016. Reinvestigation of Kuumbi Cave, Zanzibar, Reveals Later Stone Age Coastal Habitation, Early Holocene Abandonment and Iron Age Reoccupation. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 51(2): 197–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sillén, P. 2011. Lithic Technology in Southern Mozambique: An Analysis of Lithic Debitage from Caimane Cave and Four Open Air Sites. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Uppsala University, Uppsala.Google Scholar
  124. ———. 2013. Lithic Technology in Changalane and Limpopo National Park: A Comparative Analysis of Lithic Artifacts from the Maputo and Gaza Provinces, Southern Mozambique. Unpublished Magister’s Thesis. Uppsala University, Uppsala.Google Scholar
  125. Sinclair, P. 2007. The Cultural Connections of the Red Sea: What is the Evidence for External Trading Contacts on the East African Coast in the First Millennium BC? In Natural Resources and Cultural Connections of the Red Sea: Proceedings of Red Sea Project III held in the British Museum, October 2006, ed. J. Starkey, P. Starkey, and T. Wilkinson, 187–194. Oxford: BAR International Series 1661.Google Scholar
  126. Sinclair, P.J.J., and T. Håkansson. 2000. The Swahili City State Culture. In Comparative Study of Thirty City-state Cultures, ed. M. Hansen, 461–482. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  127. Sinclair, P. et al. 1993. A Perspective on Archaeological Research in Mozambique. In The Archaeology of Africa: Food, Metals and Towns, ed. T. Shaw, P. Sinclair et al., 409–443. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  128. Sinclair, P.J.J., A. Ekblom, and M. Wood. 2012. Trade and Society on the South-east Africa Coast in the Later First Millennium AD; the Case of Chibuene. Antiquity 86(333): 723–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sinclair, P.J.J., A. Juma, and F. Chami. 2006. Excavations at Kuumbi Cave on Zanziibar in 2005. Studies in the African Past 5: 95–106.Google Scholar
  130. Smith, M.C., and H.T. Wright. 1988. Notes on a Classical Maritime Site: The Ceramics from Ras Hafun, Somalia. Azania 23(1): 15–42; and 1990. In Urban Origins in Eastern Africa, ed. P.J.J. Sinclair and L.A. Rakotoarisoa, 106–114.Google Scholar
  131. Soodyall, H., T. Jenkins et al. 1996. The Peopling of Madagascar. In Molecular Biology and Human Diversity, ed. A.J. Boyce and C.G.N. Mascie-Taylor, 156–170. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  132. Spear, T. 2000. Early Swahili History Reconsidered. International Journal of African Historical Studies 33(2): 257–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Trimingham, J.S. 1975. The Arab Geographers. In East Africa and the Orient, ed. N. Chittick and R.I. Rotberg, 115–146. New York: African Publishing House.Google Scholar
  134. Tofanelli, S., et al. 2009. On the Origins and Admixture of Malagasy: New Evidence from High-resolution Analyses of Paternal and Maternal Lineages. Molecular Biology and Evolution 26(9): 2109–2124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Vérin, P. 1975. Les échelles anciennes du commerce sur les côtes nord de Madagascar, vol. 2. Thèse d’Etat, Lille.Google Scholar
  136. ———. 1986. The History of Civilisation in North Madagascar. Rotterdam: A.A.Balkema.Google Scholar
  137. Vérin, P., and H.T. Wright. 1999. Madagascar and Indonesia: New evidence from Archaeology and Linguistics. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 18: 35–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Vérin et al. 1969. The Glottochronology of Malagasy Speech Communities. Oceanic Linguistics 8(1): 26–83.Google Scholar
  139. Vernier, E., and J. Millot. 1971. Archéologie malgache. Comptoirs musulmans. Paris: Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle.Google Scholar
  140. Virah-Sawmy, M., et al. 2009a. Threshold Response of Madagascar’s Littoral Forest to Sea Level Rise. Global Ecology and Biogeography 18(1): 98–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. ———. 2009b. How Does Spatial Heterogeneity Influence Resilience to Climatic Changes? Ecological Dynamics in Southeast Madagascar. Ecologogical Monographs 79: 557–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. ———. 2010. Evidence for Drought and Forest Declines during the Recent Mega Faunal Extinctions in Madagascar. Journal of Biogeography 37(3): 506–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. ———. in preparation. Using Fossil and Modern Analogue to Re-interpret Landscape Changes, Grazing Regimes, and Human Impacts in Arid Southwest Madagascar.Google Scholar
  144. Walsh, M.T. 2007. Island Subsistence: Hunting, Trapping and the Translocation of Wildlife in the Western Indian Ocean. Azania 42(1): 83–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Wood, M. 2012. Interconnections: Glass Beads and Trade in Southern and Eastern Africa and the Indian Ocean 7th to 16th centuries AD. Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.Google Scholar
  146. Wright, H.T. 1984. Early Seafarers of the Comoro Islands: The Dembeni Phase of the IXth-Xth Centuries AD. Azania 19(1): 13–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. ———., ed. 2007. Early State Formation in Central Madagascar: An Archaeological Survey of Western Avaradrano. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology.Google Scholar
  148. Wright, H.T. and Dewar, R.E. 2000. Northeast Madagascar in the XVth–XVIIth Centuries. In L’extraordinaire et le quotidien, ed. C. Allibert and N. Rajaonarimanana, 287–311. Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
  149. Zhao, B. 2012. Vers une expertise plus fine et une approche plus historique de la céramique chinoise de la nécropole de Vohémar. Études Océan Indien 46–47: 91–103.Google Scholar
  150. Zinke, J., et al. 2003. Postglacial Flooding History of Mayotte Lagoon (Comoro Archipelago, Southwest Indian Ocean). Marine Geology 194: 181–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anneli Ekblom
    • 1
  • Paul Lane
    • 1
  • Chantal Radimilahy
    • 2
  • Jean-Aime Rakotoarisoa
    • 3
  • Paul Sinclair
    • 1
  • Malika Virah-Sawmy
    • 4
  1. 1.Uppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.University Museum of AntananarivoAntananarivoMadagascar
  3. 3.INALCOParisFrance
  4. 4.UNSWKensingtonAustralia

Personalised recommendations