Combating Deterioration in Salt-Affected Soil in Egypt by Crop Rotations

  • Samiha A. H. Ouda
  • Abd El-Hafeez Zohry
  • Hamdy Khalifa
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science book series (BRIEFSENVIRONMENTAL)


Crop rotation can be used as a technique to save on the applied water, improve soil fertility and combat soil deterioration under current climate and under climate change. Five crops rotations were suggested to be implemented in salt-affected soil in the North Nile Delta of Egypt. The selected crops for these rotations are either salinity tolerant, or tolerant cultivars were selected from sensitive or medium tolerant crops. Precise land leveling and cultivation on raised beds were suggested to save 25 % of the applied water to surface irrigation. Furthermore, three-crop sequence and intercropping systems were also used. Total water requirements for each rotation were calculated using 30 year climate normals and in 2030 under climate change. The results indicated that total water requirements for the suggested crop rotations will increase under climate change in 2030, in addition to more water will need to be applied as leaching requirements for the cultivated crops in salt-affected soils. Thus, using the management package resulted in applying less water to the suggested rotations in 2030, compared to the applied water to these rotations under present climate and surface irrigation. The saved irrigation amounts can be used as leaching requirements under climate change.


Intercropping systems Three-crop sequence Total water requirements Climate change effect 


  1. Abd El-Aal AIN (1995) Macro and micro morphological studies on the water table affected layer in some soils of Egypt. PhD, Thesis Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University. Giza, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  2. Abd El-Zaher SR, Osman MS, Sherif SA (2009) Effect of intercropping barley with sugar beet under different nitrogen fertilization levels on yield components. Egypt J Appl Sci 24(6B)Google Scholar
  3. Abdel-Mawly SE, Zanouny I (2004) Response of sugar beet (Beta Vulgaris, l.) to potassium application and irrigation with saline water Ass. Univ Bull Environ Res 7(1)Google Scholar
  4. Abou-Kreshe MAA, Ibrahim ST, Mohammadain EEA (2011) Effect of cowpea intercropping date in maize and sorghum fields on productivity and infestation weed. Egypt J Agron 33(1):35–49Google Scholar
  5. Abo Soliman MSM, Saied MM, El-Barbary SM, Bengamen IS (2000) On-Farm soil management to improve some properties of salt affected soil at North Delta. In: Proceedings of the Eighth conference of Agricultural Development Research, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahmad R, Abdulla Z (1982) Biomass production of food and fiber crops using highly saline water under desert conditions. In: Biosaline research; proceedings from the 2nd international workshop on biosaline research 1980. La Paz, Mexico, pp 149–163Google Scholar
  7. Ahmad IM, Qubal B, Ahmad G, Shah NH (2009) Maize yield, plant tissue and residual soil N as affected by nitrogen management and tillage system. J Agric Biol Sci 1(1):19–29Google Scholar
  8. Antar SA, El-Henawy AS, Atwa AAE (2008) Improving some properties of heavy clay salt affected soil as a result of different subsurface tillage. J Agric Sci Mansoura Univ 33:7675–7687Google Scholar
  9. Bakker D, Hamilton M, Hetherington GJ, Spann R (2010) Salinity dynamics and the potential for improvement of water logged and saline land in a Mediterranean climate using permanent raised beds. Soil Tillage Res 110(1):8–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhatti UA, Khan MM (2012) Review Soil management in mitigating the adverse effects of climate change. Soil Environ 31(1):1–10. (Soil Science Society of Pakistan)
  11. Blackburn (1984) Sugarcane (1st edn). Longman, London and New York (Tropical Agriculture Series). 414 pGoogle Scholar
  12. Brady NC, Well RR (2008) The nature and properties of soils. Pearson-Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River NJ p 990Google Scholar
  13. Bremer E, Janzen HH, Ellert BH, McKenzie RH (2008) Soil organic carbon after twelve years of various crop rotations in an Aridic Boroll. Soil Sci Soc Am J 72:970–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cerrie CC, Bernoux M, Cerrie CEP, Feller C (2004) Carbon cycling and sequestration opportunities in South America: the case of Brazil. Soil Use Manag 20:248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Devinder S, Mahey RK, Vashist KK, Mahal SS (2005) Economizing irrigation water use and enhancing water productivity in rice Oryza sativa L. through bed/furrow transplanting. Environ Ecol 23:606–610Google Scholar
  16. Elbordiny MM, El-Dewiny CY (2008) Effect of some salt affected soil properties on micronutrients availability. J Appl Sci Res 4(11):1569–1573Google Scholar
  17. El Falaky AA, Rady AA (1993) Salt tolerance of rice and cotton crops grown in salt affected soils. Tasks Veg Sci 28:147–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. El-Saidi MT (1997) Salinity and its effect on growth, yield and some physiological processes of crop plants. In: Jaiwal PK, Singh RP, Gulati A (eds) Strategies for improving salt tolerance in higher plants. Science Publishing, Enfield, NH, USA, pp 111–127Google Scholar
  19. El-Sanat GMA (2012) Effect of some soil management practices and nitrogen fertilizer levels on some soil properties and its productivity at North Delta. J Soil Sci Agric Eng Mansoura Univ 3:1137–1151Google Scholar
  20. Farghaly BS, Zohry AA, Bassal SAA (2003) Crops management for intercropping sugar beet with some essential crops to maximize area unit productivity. J Agric Sci Mansoura Univ 28(7):5183–5199Google Scholar
  21. FCRI (2014) Field crops research institute bulletin. Agricultural Research Center, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  22. Gehad A (2003) Deteriorated soils in Egypt: management and rehabilitation—report; executive authority for land improvement project (EALIP). Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, CairoGoogle Scholar
  23. Hamd-Alla WA, Shalaby EM, Dawood RA, Zohry AA (2014) Effect of cowpea (Vigansinensis L) with maize (Zea mays L) intercropping on yield and its components. Int Sch Sci Res Innov 8(11):1170–1176Google Scholar
  24. Hanna F (2000) Pedological studies development in Egypt during the last 50 years (1950–2000). Egyptian Soil Science Society (ESSS)—Golden Jubilee Congress 1950–2000, Cairo (Oct 23–25)Google Scholar
  25. Hanson LE, Hill AL (2004) Fusarium species causing fusarium yellows of sugar beet. J Sugar Beet Res 41(4):163–178Google Scholar
  26. Hosseini SHF, Bordbar M, Rajabi S (2014) The perception of farmers about laser land levelling as an appropriate technology. Agric Sect Iran Ann Res Rev Biol 4(13):2207–2214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Huang M, Shao M, Zhang L, Li Y (2003) Water use efficiency and sustainability of different long-term crop rotation systems in the Loess Plateau of China. Soil Tillage Res 72:95–104. doi: 10.1016/s0167-1987(03)00065-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Humphreys E, Meisner C, Gupta RK, Timsina J, Beecher HG, Lu TY, Singh Y, Gill MA, Masih Gou ZJ, Hompson JA (2004) Water saving in rice–wheat systems. Paper presented at the 4th international crop science congress in Brisbane, Australia. Retrieved 05 Apr 2005
  29. IRRI (International Rice Research Institute) (2007) Water management in irrigated rice: coping with water scarcity. IRRI, Los Baños (Philippines)Google Scholar
  30. Johnson NC, Copeland PJ, Crookston RK, Pfleger FL (1992) Mycorrhizae: Possible explanation for the yield decrease with continuous corn and soybean. Agron. J. 84:387–390Google Scholar
  31. Kaffka S, Dong D, Gary P (1999) Saline water can be reused to irrigate sugarbeets, but sugar may be low. California Agric 53(1):11–15. doi: 10.3733/ca.v053n01p11. (January-February 1999)
  32. Kamel AS, El-Masry ME, Khalil HE (2010) Productive sustainable rice based rotations in saline-sodic soils in Egypt. Egypt J Agron 32(1):73–88Google Scholar
  33. Kaur R, Malik R, Paul M (2007) Long-term effects of various crop rotations for managing salt-affected soils through a field scale decision support system—a case study. Soil Use Manage 23:52–62Google Scholar
  34. Kaye NM, Mason SC, Jackson DS, Galusha TD (2007) Crop rotation and soil amendments alters sorghum grain quality. Crop Sci 47:722–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Karlen DL, Varvel GE, Bullock DG, Cruse RM (1994) Crop rotations for the 21st century. Adv Agron 53:1–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Khan F, Khan SU, Sarir MS, Khattak RA (2007) Effect of land leveling on some physico-chemical properties of soil in district dir lower. Sarhad J Agric 23(1):107–114Google Scholar
  37. Kishk MA (2000) Sustainable land use in poor countries and poor communities: a mirage of real water. In: Soil and sustainable agriculture in the new century. Egyptian Soil Science Society (ESSS)—Golden Jubilee Congress 1950–2000, Cairo. ( Oct 23–25)Google Scholar
  38. Lacerda CF, Sousa GG, Silva FLB, Guimarães FVA, Silva GL, Cavalcante LF (2011) Soil salinization and maize and cowpea yield in the crop rotation system using saline waters. Engenharia Agrícola, Jaboticabal 31:663–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mahmoud MA (2012) Effect of deficit irrigation and induced planting methods on water use efficiency, some soil properties and productivity of rice crop in North Nile Delta. PhD Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  40. Mahmoud A, Ouda S, Abd El-Hafez S (2016) High water consuming crops under control: I. Case of rice crop. In: Major crops and water scarcity in Egypt. Springer Publishing House, pp 69–82Google Scholar
  41. Mamani OR, Doussoulin EE, Serri GH (1998) Response of cotton (Gossypiulmbarbadense) to nitrogen fertilizer, plant density and leaching water in the LlutaValley. Idesia 15:49–58Google Scholar
  42. Meleha ME, El-Bably AZ, Abd Allah AA, El-Khoby WM (2008) Producing more rice with less water by inducing planting methods in north Delta, Egypt. J Agric Sci Mansoura Univ 33:805–813Google Scholar
  43. Mohamedin AAM, Abdel-Warth M, Mahmoud AA, El-Melegy AM (2005) Effect of soil amendments followed by saline water on properties and productivity of a highly alkali soils. Egypt J Appl Sci 20(11):258–268Google Scholar
  44. Mohamedin AAM, Mona KM (2011) Abdel-Razek and A.A.S. Gendy. 2011. Evaluation of the reclamation of salt affected clay soil with gypsum and surface flushing under rice-wheat system in the North Nile Delta. Egypt J Appl Sci 26(8):313–327Google Scholar
  45. Mohamedin AAM (2012) Effect of leaching with adding gypsum and rice straw compost on improving salt affected soils and rice yield. In: Proceeding of Minia international conference for agriculture and irrigation in the Nile Basin Countries, pp 910–918. (26th–29th March)Google Scholar
  46. Moukhtar MM, El-Hadidy E, El-Shewikh MAB (2003) Drainage and degrading salty clay soil in Egypt. Paper No 001. Presented at the 9th international drainage workshop, Utrecht, The Netherlands. (Sept 10–13, 2003)Google Scholar
  47. Moustafa FAF (2005) Studies on reclamation of saline sodic soils. PhD Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Benha Branch, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  48. Naresh RK, Tomar SS, Kumar Dipender (2014) Experiences with rice grown on permanent raised beds: effect of crop establishment techniques on water use, productivity, profitability and soil physical properties [J]. Rice Sci 21:170–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Raimbault BA, Vyn TJ (1991) Crop rotation and tillage effects on corn growth and soil structural stability. Agron J 83:979–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rhoades JD, Rawlins SL, Phene CJ (1980) Irrigation of Cotton with Saline Drainage Water. ASCE, Portland, OR, USAGoogle Scholar
  51. Richards LA (ed) (1954) Saline and alkali soils: diagnosis and improvement. USDA, Agriculture Research Service Handbook 60Google Scholar
  52. Rhoades JD (1990) Overview: Diagnosis of salinity problems and selection of control practices. In: Tanji K (ed) Agricultural salinity assessment and management. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, pp 393–409Google Scholar
  53. Sayre K (2007) Conservation agriculture for irrigated agriculture in Asia. In: Lal R, Suleimenov M, Stewart BA, Hansen DO, Doraiswamy P (eds) Climate change and terrestrial carbon sequestration in central Asia. Taylor and Francis, The Netherlands, pp 211–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Shalaby A, Ali RR, Gad A (2012) Land degradation monitoring in the Nile Delta of Egypt, using remote sensing and GIS. Int J Basic Appl Sci 1(4):283–294Google Scholar
  55. Sheha AM, Ahmed NR, Abou-Elela AM (2014) Effect of crop sequence and nitrogen levels on rice productivity. Ann Agric Sci 52(4):451–460Google Scholar
  56. Shennan C, Grattan SR, May DM, Hillhouse CJ, Schachtman DP, Wander M, Robets B, Afoya S, Burau RG, McNeish C, Zelinski L (1995) Feasibility of cyclis reuse of saline drainage in a tomato-cotton rotation. J Environ Quality 24(3):476–486Google Scholar
  57. Snyder RL, Orang M, Bali K, Eching S (2004) Basic irrigation scheduling BIS.
  58. Tanaka DL, Anderson RL, Rao SC (2005) Crop sequencing to improve use of precipitation and synergize crop growth. Agron J 97:385–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tuong TP, Bouman AM, Mortimer M (2004) More rice, less water—integrated approaches for increasing waster productivity in irrigated rice-based systems in Asia. In: 4th international crop science congress on new directions for a diverse planet in Brisbane, Australia. Retrieved 01 Sept
  60. Várallyay G (2010) The impact of climate change on soils and on their water management. Agron Res 8(Special Issue II):385–396Google Scholar
  61. Varvel GE (2000) Crop rotation and nitrogen effects on normalized grain yields in a long-term study. Agron J 92:938–941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wafaa Mohamed (2014) Maximizing productivity and profitability by intercropping faba been on sugar beet. Egypt J Appl Sci 29(9):503–518Google Scholar
  63. West TO, Post WM (2002) Soil organic carbon sequestration rates by tillage and crop rotation: a global data analysis. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:1930–1946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yao R-J, Yang J-S, Zhang T-J, Gao P, Yu S-P, Wang X-P (2013) Short-term effect of cultivation and crop rotation systems on soil quality indicators in a coastal newly reclaimed farming area. J Soils Sediments Prot Risk Assess Rem 13(8):1335Google Scholar
  65. Yazar A (2008) Guidelines on crop management under saline conditions including seed treatments technology, crop selection and rotation. Cukurova University, Faculty of Agriculture, Adana, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  66. Yu PS, Yang TC, Chou CC (2002) Effects of climate change on evapotranspiration from paddy fields in Southern Taiwan. Clim Change 54(1–2):165–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zohry AA (2005) Effect of relaying cotton on some crops under bio-mineral N fertilization rates on yield and yield components. Annals of Agric Sci 431:89–103Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samiha A. H. Ouda
    • 1
  • Abd El-Hafeez Zohry
    • 2
  • Hamdy Khalifa
    • 1
  1. 1.Water Requirements and Field Irrigation Research Department, Agricultural Research CenterSoils, Water and Environment Research InstituteGizaEgypt
  2. 2.Crops Intensification Research Department, Agricultural Research CenterField Crops Research InstituteGizaEgypt

Personalised recommendations