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Introduction

  • Kolumban HutterEmail author
  • Yongqi Wang
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Geophysical and Environmental Mechanics and Mathematics book series (AGEM)

Abstract

This chapter provides a first impression of what the general aims and scopes of fluid and thermodynamics are as special topics of engineering and natural sciences. In a first section short historical notes and definitions of the subject fields are given: What scientific fields are represented by ‘Mechanics’ and ‘Thermodynamics’? What terminology is used in both specialties to set the important vocabulary within Newtonian mechanics and in thermodynamics as representative axioms to arrive at balances of mass, momenta, energy and entropy? Concepts like ‘body’, ‘motion’, ‘force’, ‘power’, ‘work’, ‘temperature’ and ‘heat’ need precise definitions to define Newtonian mechanics and the First Law of Thermodynamics. These laws form principal statements of universality; however, to formulate any mathematically closed theory, statements of material behavior are requested. In a second subsection, properties of liquids are briefly discussed. This is done with focus on simple shear experiments to shed light on behaviors of solids and fluids. Elastic and viscous behavior are described as are the special responses of elastic, viscous and more complicated behavior of pure water and salty water as functions of density, pressure, temperature and salinity, known as thermal equations of state.

Keywords

Newtonian mechanics Irreversible thermodynamics Definition of solids fluids and gases Material response Elastic viscous behavior Thermal equation of states 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Versuchsanstalt für Wasserbau, Hydrologie und GlaziologieETH ZürichZürichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringTechnische Universität DarmstadtDarmstadtGermany

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