• Samuel A. TishermanEmail author


As medicine has advanced over the past 50 years, the need for high-quality, cost-effective critical care services has expanded exponentially. In the USA, one recent estimate was that five million patients are admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) every year, leading to 23 million ICU bed days [1]. The cost of managing these patients typically accounts for a large percentage of hospital costs.


Critical care metrics ICU staffing Clinical management guidelines Quality improvement 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Surgical Intensive Care Unit, RA Cowley Shock Trauma CenterUniversity of Maryland Medical CenterBaltimoreUSA

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