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Status Epilepticus

  • Emily J. Gilmore
  • Emad Nourollahzadeh
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter we will review the diagnosis, detection, prevention, and management of seizures and status epilepticus in critically ill patients. In the last decade, it has become increasingly evident that the brain is not an innocent bystander in the effects of critical illness. Patients in surgical ICUs commonly have neurologic sequelae, which often manifest as a change in mental status with or without focal. Seizures and status epilepticus are common among ICU-related complications, although large prospective epidemiologic studies are lacking. Status epilepticus is a common neurological emergency with substantial morbidity, mortality, and cost. Unfortunately, the majority of seizures and status epilepticus in the critically ill are nonconvulsive, with little or no overt clinical manifestations to reflect ongoing ictal activity, thus requiring continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring for detection. The early recognition and management of seizures and status epilepticus are crucial as delay in treatment is associated with worse outcomes. Using the available literature, this chapter will review the diagnosis, detection, prevention, and management of seizures and status epilepticus relevant to patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit.

Keywords

Status epilepticus Nonconvulsive seizures Refractory status epilepticus Seizure prophylaxis Surgical intensive care unit Critical care 

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neurocritical Care and Emergency NeurologyYale New Haven HospitalNew HavenUSA

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