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Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)/Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal (ECCO2R)

  • Nicole Lena Werner
  • Pauline K. Park
Chapter

Abstract

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a means of supporting severe pulmonary and cardiac dysfunction. It stabilizes critical derangements of oxygenation and ventilation, allowing time to diagnose, treat, and recover from the underlying cause of organ failure. The extracorporeal circuit has three main components: large-bore cannulae and circuit tubing to provide access to the native circulation, an artificial membrane lung to provide gas exchange, and an active pump to facilitate perfusion. Multiple clinical studies have evaluated this technology, the strongest evidence to date supporting its use being the Conventional Ventilation or ECMO for Severe Adult Respiratory Failure (CESAR) trial, which showed survival advantage when patients were treated with a protocol that included ECMO. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) is similar in concept to ECMO, but has a lower flow rate and does not significantly oxygenate the patient. It is a primary treatment for hypercarbic respiratory failure or is an adjunct to reduce potentially injurious levels of mechanical ventilator support in hypoxemic respiratory failure. Complications are common occurrences on both types of therapy. Strong institutional commitment and a team approach are critical to successful implementation. Additional randomized trials are needed to clarify the appropriate indications and best practices for these lifesaving therapies.

Keywords

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal Extracorporeal life support Respiratory failure Membrane lung Cardiac failure Bridge to transplant 

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Michigan Health SystemAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Division of Acute Care Surgery, Department of SurgeryUniversity of Health SystemAnn ArborUSA

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