Optimized GPU-Accelerated Framework for X-Ray Rendering Using k-space Volume Reconstruction

Conference paper
Part of the IFMBE Proceedings book series (IFMBE, volume 57)

Abstract

X-ray rendering is recognized to be an important visualization technique in several scientific and engineering domains. It is capable of generating digital radiographs of volumetric data in the spatial domain using the X-ray transform with \(\mathscr {O}(N^3)\) complexity. Alternatively, these radiographs can be reconstructed in the k-space in \(\mathscr {O}(N^2 log N)\). This paper presents the architecture of an optimized X-ray volume rendering framework based on the Fourier slice theorem. The framework exploits the modern designs of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). The rendering pipeline is designed to run entirely on the GPUs relying on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) technology for computing all the data-parallel kernels and OpenGL for executing complementary geometrical operations. The interoperability between CUDA and OpenGL operations is addressed to optimize the workflow. The benchmarking results show that our framework is capable of rendering an X-ray projection of size \(512^2\) in 0.5 milli-seconds using a GeForce GTX 970 GPU.

Keywords

X-ray volume rendering k-space volume reconstruction GPU-based rendering CUDA/OpenGL interoperability 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Drebin Robert A., Carpenter L., Hanrahan P. (1988) Volume Rendering. Proceedings of the 15\(^{th}\) Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (New York, NY, USA), pp 65–74 .Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barillot C. (1993) Surface and volume rendering techniques to display 3-D data. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine;12:pp 111–119.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kaufman A., Mueller K. (2005) Overview of volume rendering. The visualization handbook. 2005, pp 127–174.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Agus M., Bettio F., Gobbetti E., Pintore G. (2007) Medical visualization with new generation spatial 3D displays. Eurographics Italian Chapter Conference, pp 161–166 .Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Westenberg MA., Roerdink JBTM. (2000) X-ray volume rendering by hierarchical wavelet splatting. Proceedings of the \(15^{th}\) International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2000;3:pp 159–162.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Natterer F. (1986) The mathematics of computerized tomography;32. Siam 1986.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Westenberg MA., Roerdink JBTM. (2001) An extension of Fourier-wavelet volume rendering by view interpolation. J of Mathematical Imaging and Vision;14:pp 103–115.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dunne S., Napel S., Ruth B. (1992) Interactive display of volumetric data by fast Fourier projection. Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics;16.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Levoy M. (1992) Volume Rendering using the Fourier Projection-Slice Theorem. Proceedings of Graphics Interface 1992 & Technical Report from Stanford University CSL-TR-92-521, pp 61–69.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Totsuka T., Levoy M. (1993) Frequency Domain Volume Rendering. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1993 & Technical Report from Stanford University CSL-TR-93-570.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Malzbender T. (1993) Fourier volume rendering. ACM Transactions on Graphics. 9(7):pp 233–250.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Meyer-Spradow J., Ropinski T., Mensmann J., Hinrichs K. (2009) Voreen: a rapid-prototyping environment for ray-casting-based volume visualizations. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications;29:pp 6–13.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bhaniramka P., Demange Y. (2002) OpenGL volumizer: a toolkit for high quality volume rendering of large data sets. IEEE Symposium on Volume Visualization and Graphics, pp 45–54.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fogal T., Krüger J. (2010) Tuvok, an Architecture for Large Scale Volume Rendering. VMV, pp 139–146.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shreiner D., The Khronos OpenGL ARB Working Group, others. (2009) OpenGL programming guide: the official guide to learning OpenGL, versions 3.0 and 3.1. Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Blythe D. (2006) The Direct3D 10 System. ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Papers SIGGRAPH ’06 (New York, NY, USA):pp 724–734.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abdellah M. (2012) High performance Fourier volume rendering on graphics processing units. Master’s thesis, Systems and Biomedical Engineering Department, Cairo University.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Abdellah M., Eldeib A., Sharawi A. (2015) High performance GPU-based Fourier volume rendering. International Journal of Biomedical Imaging.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Abdellah M., Eldeib A., Owis MI. (2015) Accelerating DRR generation using Fourier slice theorem on the GPU. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2015 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, pp 4238–4241.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nvidia (2007) CUDA CUFFT Library.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Abdellah M., Eldeib A., Owis MI. (2015) GPU acceleration for digitally reconstructed radiographs using bindless texture objects and CUDA/OpenGL interoperability. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2015 \(37^{th}\) Annual International Conference of the IEEE, pp 4242–4245.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Podlozhnyuk V. (2007) Image convolution with CUDA.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Abdellah M., Saleh S., Eldieb A., Shaarawi A. (2012) High performance multi-dimensional (2D–3D) FFT-shift implementation on graphics processing units (GPUs). Proceedings of the \(6^{th}\) Cairo International Biolmedical Engineering Conference (CIBEC 2012).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Abdellah M. (2014) cufftShift: High performance CUDA-accelerated FFT-shift library. Proceedings of the High Performance Computing Symposium (HPC ’14), Society for Computer Simulation International (San Diego, CA, USA);5:1: pp –5:8.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    VolViz.org, online library for medical MR and CT datasets at http://www.volvis.org/.
  26. 26.
    The volume library, online library for Volume visualization datasets at http://lgdv.cs.fau.de/External/vollib/.
  27. 27.
    Abdellah M., Eldieb A., Shaarawi A. (2012) Constructing a functional Fourier volume rendering pipeline on heterogenous platforms. Proceedings of the \(6^{th}\) Cairo International Biolmedical Engineering Conference (CIBEC 2012).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Abdellah M., Eldieb A., Sharawi A. (2014) Offline large scale Fourier volume rendering on low-end hardware. Proceedings of the \(7^{th}\) Cairo International Biolmedical Engineering Conference (CIBEC 2014).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Systems and Biomedical Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringCairo UniversityGizaEgypt

Personalised recommendations