Human–Robot Augmentation

  • Massimo Bergamasco
  • Hugh Herr
Part of the Springer Handbooks book series (SHB)


The development of robotic systems capable of sharing with humans the load of heavy tasks has been one of the primary objectives in robotics research. At present, in order to fulfil such an objective, a strong interest in the robotics community is collected by the so-called wearable robots, a class of robotics systems that are worn and directly controlled by the human operator. Wearable robots, together with powered orthoses that exploit robotic components and control strategies, can represent an immediate resource also for allowing humans to restore manipulation and/or walking functionalities.

The present chapter deals with wearable robotics systems capable of providing different levels of functional and/or operational augmentation to the human beings for specific functions or tasks. Prostheses, powered orthoses, and exoskeletons are described for upper limb, lower limb, and whole body structures. State-of-the-art devices together with their functionalities and main components are presented for each class of wearable system. Critical design issues and open research aspects are reported.


Gait Cycle Motor Intent Pneumatic Muscle Admittance Controller Wearable Robot 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

activities for daily living


auto regressive estimator


body extender


Berkely exoskeleton


cost of transport


Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency




degree of freedom


exoskeleton for human performance augmentation




extravehicular activity


full-body EHPA


hybrid assistive limb


hand exoskeleton


intelligent assisting device


intelligent autonomous system




Jet Propulsion Laboratory




Massachusetts Institute of Technology


multiphalanx hand exoskeleton


series elastic actuator


single-phalanx hand exoskeleton


time-base generator


upper limb exoskeleton


virtual environment


zero moment point


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Perceptual Robotics LaboratorySant’Anna School of Advanced StudiesPisaItaly
  2. 2.MIT Media LabCambridgeUSA

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