Humanoids

  • Paul Fitzpatrick
  • Kensuke Harada
  • Charles C. Kemp
  • Yoshio Matsumoto
  • Kazuhito Yokoi
  • Eiichi Yoshida

Abstract

Humanoid robots selectively immitate aspects of human form and behavior. Humanoids come in a variety of shapes and sizes, from complete human-size legged robots to isolated robotic heads with human-like sensing and expression. This chapter highlights significant humanoid platforms and achievements, and discusses some of the underlying goals behind this area of robotics. Humanoids tend to require the integration of many of the methods covered in detail within other chapters of this handbook, so this chapter focuses on distinctive aspects of humanoid robotics with liberal cross-referencing.

This chapter examines what motivates researchers to pursue humanoid robotics, and provides a taste of the evolution of this field over time. It summarizes work on legged humanoid locomotion, whole-body activities, and approaches to human–robot communication. It concludes with a brief discussion of factors that may influence the future of humanoid robots.

3-D

three-dimensional

ACT

anatomically correct testbed

AI

artificial intelligence

AIST

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan)

AMD

autonomous mental development

BFP

best-first-planner

CG

computer graphics

COG

center of gravity

COM

center of mass

CWS

contact wrench sum

DARPA

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DLR

Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt

DOF

degree of freedom

FPGA

field-programmable gate array

GUI

graphical user interface

GZMP

generalized ZMP

HRP

humanoid robotics project

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Agency

OKR

optokinetic response

QP

quadratic programming

QRIO

quest for curiosity

R.U.R.

Rossum’s Universal Robots

RMC

resolved momentum control

RRT

rapidly exploring random tree

TV

television

VOR

vestibular-ocular reflex

WABIAN

Waseda bipedal humanoid

WABOT

Waseda robot

ZMP

zero moment point

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Fitzpatrick
    • 1
  • Kensuke Harada
    • 2
  • Charles C. Kemp
    • 3
  • Yoshio Matsumoto
    • 4
  • Kazuhito Yokoi
    • 5
  • Eiichi Yoshida
    • 6
  1. 1.Robotics, Brain, and Cognitive Sciences DepartmentItalian Institute of TechnologyGenoaItaly
  2. 2.Intelligent Systems Research InstituteNational Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and TechnologyTsukubaJapan
  3. 3.Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  4. 4.Robot Innovation Research CenterNational Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)TsukubaJapan
  5. 5.Intelligent Systems Research InstituteAIST Tsukuba Central 2Tsukuba, IbarakiJapan
  6. 6.CNRS-AIST Joint Robotics Laboratory, UMI3218/CRTNational Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)Tsukuba, IbarakiJapan

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