Medical Robotics and Computer-Integrated Surgery

  • Russell H. TaylorEmail author
  • Arianna Menciassi
  • Gabor Fichtinger
  • Paolo Fiorini
  • Paolo Dario
Part of the Springer Handbooks book series (SHB)


The growth of medical robotics since the mid-1980s has been striking. From a few initial efforts in stereotactic brain surgery, orthopaedics, endoscopic surgery, microsurgery, and other areas, the field has expanded to include commercially marketed, clinically deployed systems, and a robust and exponentially expanding research community. This chapter will discuss some major themes and illustrate them with examples from current and past research. Further reading providing a more comprehensive review of this rapidly expanding field is suggested in Sect. 63.4.

Medical robots may be classified in many ways: by manipulator design (e. g., kinematics, actuation); by level of autonomy (e. g., preprogrammed versus teleoperation versus constrained cooperative control), by targeted anatomy or technique (e. g., cardiac, intravascular, percutaneous, laparoscopic, microsurgical); or intended operating environment (e. g., in-scanner, conventional operating room). In this chapter, we have chosen to focus on the role of medical robots within the context of larger computer-integrated systems including presurgical planning, intraoperative execution, and postoperative assessment and follow-up.

First, we introduce basic concepts of computer-integrated surgery, discuss critical factors affecting the eventual deployment and acceptance of medical robots, and introduce the basic system paradigms of surgical computer-assisted planning, execution, monitoring, and assessment (surgical CAD /CAM ) and surgical assistance. In subsequent sections, we provide an overview of the technology of medical robot systems and discuss examples of our basic system paradigms, with brief additional discussion topics of remote telesurgery and robotic surgical simulators. We conclude with some thoughts on future research directions and provide suggested further reading.


Augmented Reality Surgical Instrument Haptic Feedback Needle Placement Surgical Simulator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.





computer-aided design


computer-aided manufacturing


computer-integrated surgery


complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor


computed tomography


direct current


Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt




graphics processing unit


human–machine cooperative system


Johns Hopkins University


Jet Propulsion Laboratory


light-emitting diode


microelectromechanical system


minimally invasive surgery


magnetic resonance imaging


natural orifice transluminal surgery


optical coherence tomography


operating room


personal computer


positron emission tomography


random access memory system


remote center of motion


shape memory alloy


single port laparoscopy


total hip replacement


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Russell H. Taylor
    • 1
    Email author
  • Arianna Menciassi
    • 2
  • Gabor Fichtinger
    • 3
  • Paolo Fiorini
    • 4
  • Paolo Dario
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceThe Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.The BioRobotics InstituteSant’Anna School of Advanced StudiesPisaItaly
  3. 3.School of ComputingQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  4. 4.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of VeronaVeronaItaly
  5. 5.The BioRobotics InstituteSant’Anna School of Advanced StudiesPisaItaly

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