Robotics in Mining

  • Joshua A. Marshall
  • Adrian Bonchis
  • Eduardo Nebot
  • Steven Scheding

Abstract

This chapter presents an overview of the state of the art in mining robotics, from surface to underground applications, and beyond. Mining is the practice of extracting resources for utilitarian purposes. Today, the international business of mining is a heavily mechanized industry that exploits the use of large diesel and electric equipment. These machines must operate in harsh, dynamic, and uncertain environments such as, for example, in the high arctic, in extreme desert climates, and in deep underground tunnel networks where it can be very hot and humid. Applications of robotics in mining are broad and include robotic dozing, excavation, and haulage, robotic mapping and surveying, as well as robotic drilling and explosives handling. This chapter describes how many of these applications involve unique technical challenges for field roboticists. However, there are compelling reasons to advance the discipline of mining robotics, which include not only a desire on the part of miners to improve productivity, safety, and lower costs, but also out of a need to meet product demands by accessing orebodies situated in increasingly challenging conditions.

2-D

two-dimensional

3-D-NDT

three-dimensional normal distributions transform

3-D

three-dimensional

4WD

four wheel drive

ACARP

Australian Coal Association Research Program

AFC

armoured (or articulated) face conveyor

CAT

collision avoidance technology

CMTE

Cooperative Research Centre for Mining Technology and Equipment

CMU

Carnegie Mellon University

CSIRO

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

DGPS

differential global positioning system

DOF

degree of freedom

EHC

enhanced horizon control

GLS

global navigation satellite system

GPS

global positioning system

ICP

iterative closest point

IMU

inertial measurement unit

INS

inertial navigation system

IREDES

International Rock Excavation Data Exchange Standard

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

JPS

jigsaw positioning system

LASC

Longwall Automation Steering Committee

LHD

load haul-dump

LIDAR

light detection and ranging

MEMS

microelectromechanical system

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Agency

NIOSH

United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

PAT

proximity awareness technology

PDT

proximity detection technology

PTU

pan–tilt unit

PUMA

programmable universal machine for assembly

RCS

rig control system

RECS

robotic explosive charging system

RFID

radio frequency identification

ROC

remote operations centre

ROM

run-of-mine

ROV

remotely operated underwater vehicle

RTK

real-time kinematics

SLAM

simultaneous localization and mapping

SPMS

shearer position measurement system

TTC

time-to-collision

UKF

unscented Kalman filter

V2V

vehicle-to-vehicle

WAAS

wide-area augmentation system

WASP

wireless ad-hoc system for positioning

XML

extensible markup language

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joshua A. Marshall
    • 1
  • Adrian Bonchis
    • 2
  • Eduardo Nebot
    • 3
  • Steven Scheding
    • 4
  1. 1.The Robert M. Buchan Department of MiningQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Autonomous SystemsCSIROPullenvaleAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic EngineeringUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia
  4. 4.Rio Tinto Centre for Mine AutomationUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia

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