Industrial Robotics

  • Martin Hägele
  • Klas Nilsson
  • J. Norberto Pires
  • Rainer Bischoff

Abstract

Much of the technology that makes robots reliable, human friendly, and adaptable for numerous applications has emerged from manufacturers of industrial robots. With an estimated installation base in 2014 of about 1.5 million units, some 171000 new installations in that year and an annual turnover of the robotics industry estimated to be US$ 32 billion, industrial robots are by far the largest commercial application of robotics technology today.

The foundations for robot motion planning and control were initially developed with industrial applications in mind. These applications deserve special attention in order to understand the origin of robotics science and to appreciate the many unsolved problems that still prevent the wider use of robots in today’s agile manufacturing environments. In this chapter, we present a brief history and descriptions of typical industrial robotics applications and at the same time we address current critical state-of-the-art technological developments. We show how robots with different mechanisms fit different applications and how applications are further enabled by latest technologies, often adopted from technological fields outside manufacturing automation.

We will first present a brief historical introduction to industrial robotics with a selection of contemporary application examples which at the same time refer to a critical key technology. Then, the basic principles that are used in industrial robotics and a review of programming methods will be outlined. We will also introduce the topic of system integration particularly from a data integration point of view. The chapter will be closed with an outlook based on a presentation of some unsolved problems that currently inhibit wider use of industrial robots.

2-D

two-dimensional

3-D

three-dimensional

6-D

six-dimensional

AGV

automated guided vehicle

CAD

computer-aided design

CAM

computer-aided manufacturing

CD

committee draft

CF

carbon fiber

CNC

computer numerical control

CP

continuous path

CPS

cyber physical system

DC

direct current

DFA

design for assembly

DH

Denavit–Hartenberg

DLR

Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt

DOF

degree of freedom

FMS

flexible manufacturing system

FSW

friction stir welding

GMAW

gas-shielded metal arc welding

I/O

input/output

IFR

International Federation of Robotics

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

IT

information technology

LCC

life-cycle-costing

MORO

mobile robot

MTBF

mean time between failures

NC

numerical control

OLP

offline programming

PC

personal computer

PKM

parallel kinematic machine

parallel kinematics machine

PLC

programmable logic controller

POI

point of interest

PUMA

programmable universal machine for assembly

R&D

research and development

RC

robot controller

SCARA

selective compliance assembly robot arm

SKM

serial kinematic machines

VCR

video cassette recorder

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Hägele
    • 1
  • Klas Nilsson
    • 2
  • J. Norberto Pires
    • 3
  • Rainer Bischoff
    • 4
  1. 1.Robot SystemsFraunhofer IPAStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceLund Institute of TechnologyLundSweden
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  4. 4.Technology DevelopmentKUKA Roboter GmbHAugsburgGermany

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