Modeling and Control of Robots on Rough Terrain

Abstract

In this chapter, we introduce modeling and control for wheeled mobile robots and tracked vehicles. The target environment is rough terrains, which includes both deformable soil and heaps of rubble. Therefore, the topics are roughly divided into two categories, wheeled robots on deformable soil and tracked vehicles on heaps of rubble.

After providing an overview of this area in Sect. 50.1, a modeling method of wheeled robots on a deformable terrain is introduced in Sect. 50.2. It is based on terramechanics, which is the study focusing on the mechanical properties of natural rough terrain and its response to off-road vehicle, specifically the interaction between wheel/track and soil. In Sect. 50.3, the control of wheeled robots is introduced. A wheeled robot often experiences wheel slippage as well as its sideslip while traversing rough terrain. Therefore, the basic approach in this section is to compensate the slip via steering and driving maneuvers. In the case of navigation on heaps of rubble, tracked vehicles have much advantage. To improve traversability in such challenging environments, some tracked vehicles are equipped with subtracks, and one kinematical modeling method of tracked vehicle on rough terrain is introduced in Sect. 50.4. In addition, stability analysis of such vehicles is introduced in Sect. 50.5. Based on such kinematical model and stability analysis, a sensor-based control of tracked vehicle on rough terrain is introduced in Sect. 50.6. Sect. 50.7 summarizes this chapter.

3-D

three-dimensional

COG

center of gravity

DEM

discrete element method

DLR

Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt

DOF

degree of freedom

ESM

energy stability margin

FEM

finite element method

IMU

inertial measurement unit

JAXA

Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

LIDAR

light detection and ranging

MIT

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

NESM

normalized ESM

PID

proportional–integral–derivative

SCM

soil contact model

SLAM

simultaneous localization and mapping

UGV

unmanned ground vehicle

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Aerospace Engineering, Graduate School of EngineeringTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringKeio UniversityYokohamaJapan

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